Motivation The reason for people’s actions, willingness and goals

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Motivation

The reason for people’s actions, willingness and goals

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Motivation

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Motivation

The theories of motivation can be divided into three broad categories.

1. Reinforcement theories (Vs. Punishment)

2. Content theories

3. Process theories

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Motivation – Reinforcement Theory 1. Intermittent vs. continues reinforcement: (some time vs. all the time)

2. Positive reinforcement: following the response with something positive

(good job = raise)

3. Negative: withdrawing and holding the – part (move good employee to

shift desired)

4. Punishment: negative action

5. Extinction: is a means to stop someone from performing a learned

behavior

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Motivation-Maslow 1. Physiological: Getting $ to buy the needs

2. Safety: No harm, security, compensation program

3. Social: Friends at work

4. Recognition: Name on door, parking

5. Self Actualization (Top): using the max. ability on the job

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Motivation- McClelland

The three needs:

1. Achievement: Entrepreneurship (not related to ordinary mgt)

2. Power: strong and positive performance (power to do well)

3. Affiliation: High affiliation = Low performance

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Motivation- Herzberg

1. Motivator: Related to the job directly (challenges and responsibility)

2. Hygiene: Related to the things outside the job (pay, working

conditions, supervisor)

His Theory: pay does not motivate us well

(contradicts with MASLOW)

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Motivation- Herzberg

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Motivation- Equity

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Equity theory: based on the phenomenon of social comparison

Motivation- Equity

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Vroom’s expectancy theory argues that work motivation is determined by

individual beliefs regarding effort/performance relationships and work

outcomes.

M = (E) × (I) × (V).

Learning

1. Classical Conditions: connection we make between things (pairing

one thing with another. Ex: Pet food and bill)

2. Operant Condition: Reward after doing something based on the

consequences of the behavior (opposite #1)

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Learning 3. Social Learning Theory:

Learning from each other by watching, it is more powerful in effect:

• Model: parents, friend, managers

• Observation: watching

• Consequences: Monitor results

• Self Reinforcement: Self reward

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Integrating The Motivation Theories

• Link satisfaction and performance:

• Job satisfaction is the degree to which individuals feel positively or

negatively about their jobs. o JOB SATISFACTION, RETENTION AND PERFORMANCE

o INTEGRATED MODEL OF MOTIVATION

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Conflict Whenever a person negatively impact something we care about

Sources of Conflict:

1. Different goals

2. Different values & believes

3. Task interdependence (what you do impacts all)

4. Scarce resources (limited)

5. Ambiguous roles

6. Communication problems

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Organizational Change Why do people resist change:

1. Sunk Cost: People have invested time & efforts

2. Inadequate info: no info in advance and/or its benefits

3. Personality: type and reaction

4. Group norms: what does your team think about the change

5. Political resistance: people who are already benefiting and don’t

want to change (they are happy)

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Dynamics of Stress • Stress is tension from extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities.

SOURCES OF STRESS: Stressors: Work-Related Stressors or Non-work and Personal Stressors

• STRESS AND PERFORMANCE: It has two faces—one positive and one negative:

1. Constructive stress, or eustress

2. Destructive stress, or distress

• STRESS AND HEALTH: (anxiety & frustration)

• STRESS MANAGEMENT: – Stress prevention – Stress management (wellness)

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