11. Which phase of catabolism produces the most ATP?
|d.||Citric acid cycle|
12. A nurse is teaching the staff about the three phases of cellular catabolism. Which of the following should the nurse include?
|a.||Digestion, glycolysis and oxidation, and the citric acid cycle|
|b.||Diffusion, osmosis, and mediated transport|
|c.||S phase, G phase, and M phase|
|d.||Metabolic absorption, respiration, and excretion|
13. A runner has depleted all the oxygen available for muscle energy. Which of the following will facilitate his continued muscle performance?
14. The faculty member asked the student to identify the appropriate term for the movement of small, electrically uncharged molecules through a semipermeable barrier. Which answer indicates the nursing student understood the teaching?
15. A nurse is teaching a patient about fluid and electrolytes. Which of the following indicates the teaching was successful regarding electrolytes? Electrolytes are:
|a.||Small lipid-soluble molecules|
|b.||Large protein molecules|
|c.||Micronutrients used to produce ATP|
|d.||Electrically charged molecules|
16. A nurse is reading a chart and sees the term oncotic pressure. The nurse recalls that oncotic pressure (colloid osmotic pressure) is determined by:
|a.||Concentration of sodium|
|d.||Availability of membrane transporter proteins|
17. A patient has a body fluid of 300 mOsm/kg. This lab result is measuring:
18. In teaching a patient with cirrhosis, which information should the nurse include regarding cholesterol?
|a.||Cholesterol decreases the membrane fluidity of the erythrocyte, which reduces its ability to carry oxygen.|
|b.||Cholesterol decreases the membrane fluidity of erythrocytes, which reduces its ability to carry hemoglobin.|
|c.||Cholesterol increases the membrane fluidity of erythrocytes, which allows binding of excess glucose.|
|d.||Cholesterol increases the membrane fluidity of erythrocytes, which prolongs its life span beyond 120 days.|
19. A nurse is discussing the movement of fluid across the arterial end of capillary membranes into the interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary. Which process of fluid movement is the nurse describing?
20. A patient who has diarrhea receives a hypertonic saline solution intravenously to replace the sodium and chloride lost in the stool. What effect will this fluid replacement have on cells?
|a.||Cells will become hydrated.|
|b.||Cells will swell or burst.|
|c.||Cells will shrink.|
|d.||Cells will divide.|
21. A nurse is teaching a patient with diabetes how glucose is transported from the blood to the cell. What type of transport system should the nurse discuss with the patient?
|a.||Active-mediated transport (active transport)|
|d.||Passive-mediated transport (facilitated diffusion)|
22. How are potassium and sodium transported across plasma membranes?
|a.||By passive electrolyte channels|
|b.||By coupled channels|
|c.||By adenosine triphosphate enzyme (ATPase)|
23. Why is potassium able to diffuse easily in and out of cells?
|a.||Because potassium has a greater concentration in the intracellular fluid (ICF)|
|b.||Because sodium has a greater concentration in the extracellular fluid (ECF)|
|c.||Because the resting plasma membrane is more permeable to potassium|
|d.||Because there is an excess of anions inside the cell|
24. The ion transporter that moves Na+ and Ca2+ simultaneously in the same direction is an example of which of the following types of transport?
25. During which process can lysosomal enzymes be released to degrade engulfed particles?
26. A nurse is teaching the staff about cholesterol. Which information should be taught? The cellular uptake of cholesterol depends on:
|b.||The antiport system|
27. Some cancer drugs work during the cell cycle phase where nuclear and cytoplasmic division occurs. What is this cell cycle phase called?
28. What causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential that initiates an action potential?
|a.||Potassium gates open, and potassium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.|
|b.||Sodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.|
|c.||Sodium gates close, allowing potassium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.|
|d.||Potassium gates close, allowing sodium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.|
29. A cell is isolated, and electrophysiology studies reveal that the resting membrane potential is –70 millivolts. The predominant intracellular ion is Na+, and the predominant extracellular ion is K+. With voltage change, which of the following would result in an action potential?
|a.||K+ rushing into the cell|
|b.||Na+ rushing into the cell|
|c.||Na+ rushing out of the cell|
|d.||K+ rushing out of the cell|
30. A nurse is teaching the staff about platelet-derived growth factor. Which information should the nurse include? Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates the production of:
|c.||Connective tissue cells|
31. The phase of the cell cycle during which the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart is referred to as:
32. What is the role of cytokines in cell reproduction?
|a.||Provide growth factor for tissue growth and development|
|b.||Block progress of cell reproduction through the cell cycle|
|c.||Restrain cell growth and development|
|d.||Provide nutrients for cell growth and development|
33. A biopsy of the lung bronchi revealed ciliated epithelial cells that are capable of secretion and absorption. These cells are called _____ columnar epithelium.
34. The nurse would be correct in identifying the predominant extracellular cation as:
35. The student is reviewing functions of the cell. The student would be correct in identifying the primary function of the nerve cell as:
|c.||Maintenance of homeostasis|
36. The student is studying for a pathophysiology exam and is trying to remember the definition of amphipathic. The student should choose which of the following to be correct?
|a.||All cells have a membrane that is composed of lipids.|
|b.||Cells have organelles that have specialized function.|
|c.||Molecules are polar with one part loving water and one part hating water.|
|d.||Cells have receptor sites that other substances attach to and create additional functions.|
1. A nurse recalls that the four basic types of tissues are (select all that apply):
2. Characteristics of prokaryotes include which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
|a.||They contain no organelles.|
|b.||Their nuclear material is not encased by a nuclear membrane.|
|c.||They contain a distinct nucleus.|
|d.||They contain histones.|
|e.||They contain a cellular membrane.|