Traditional Training Methods
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
1. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of presentational, hands-on, and group building training methods.
2. Provide recommendations for effective on-the-job training (OJT).
3. Develop a case study.
4. Develop a self-directed learning module.
5. Discuss the key components of behavior modeling training.
6. Explain the conditions necessary for adventure learning to be effective.
7. Discuss what team training should focus on to improve team performance.
Learning Develops Skills of Staff Dedicated to Battling Cancer
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nonprofit nationwide, community-based, voluntary health organization dedicated to creating a world without cancer. ACS strives to save lives by helping people stay well and get well, by finding cures for cancer, and by helping those who have cancer to fight the disease. ACS is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, and has regional and local offices throughout the United States that support eleven geographical divisions to ensure a presence in every community. The corporate office in Atlanta is responsible for overall strategic planning, corporate support services including training, development and implementation of research programs, health program, a 24-hour call center, and providing technical support and materials to regional and local offices. Regional and local offices deliver patient programs and services and engage in fund-raising activities.
The philosophy of the talent development department is to provide “the right learning solution at the right time for the right person.” One guiding principle is to support and drive the business through employee development and training. Another is that ACS wants employees to grow and develop, which is captured by the slogan “save lives, fulfill yours.” Staff are encouraged to participate292in leadership development, mentoring, coaching, and job-specific training classes. For staff interested in pursuing formal education, ACS has partnerships with online universities. Also, staff are encouraged to work with their manager to establish clear professional and development goals that map a path to career success.
At ACS it is important for training and development programs to be realistic in terms of taking into account budgetary constraints and job responsibilities. The programs need to be both efficient and effective and minimize the time that staff members are taken away from their primary responsibilities such as helping patients, working with the community, and planning and carrying out fund-raising events. All delivered content is evaluated on the extent to which it is related to the job, staff member performance, and the organization’s mission. For example, the Nationwide Manager Development Program is designed to help build management strength for ACS. The program is marketed as an “adventure in management” and its design is intended to make training engaging, enjoyable, and enriching for the participants. The eighteen-month program helps participants learn management concepts using virtual discussion forums and e-learning. Also, participants are put into learning teams designed to represent a diversity of thought, tenure, and experience. These teams engage in action learning, which focuses on developing management skills, while developing solutions to business issues and problems facing ACS.
Source: Based on P. Harris, “Training as a change agent,” TD (October 2014): 84–86; www.cancer.org , website for the American Cancer Society.
The American Cancer Society uses a combination of training methods to develop the skills of its staff members. For most companies, including the American Cancer Society, training methods have to be developed or purchased within a budget, there usually is a sense of urgency for the training, and training must be made available to those employees who need it.
Several studies have shown that most workplace learning doesn’t occur through formal courses or programs but rather on the job, informally, and through social interactions with others.1 For example, one study of executives found that 70 percent of learning occurred on the job in the workplace, 20 percent occurred socially through coaching and mentoring, and only 10 percent occurred through formal classroom instruction. This is known as the 70-20-10 model of learning. Many trainers rely on this model for designing or choosing training methods that will be included in courses and programs. Similar to the emphasis on conditions for learning and transfer discussed in Chapter Four, “Learning and Transfer of Training,” this model suggests that to increase the likelihood that learning will occur in training, the content needs to be meaningful and practical, the learner has to be actively involved in the learning process, and learning involves feedback and reinforcement from others.
Before we discuss specific training methods, it is important for you to consider more broadly the training methods that companies are using to help employees learn and how the emphasis placed on these different methods is changing. Figure 7.1 shows a learning system with four quadrants. This learning system shows that how and what employees learn293varies and influences the type of training methods used.2 Guided competency development means that the company has defined a broad set of competencies or skills for positions or for the entire company. Training and development methods such as lectures or online training are directed at the most common needs in the company. Context-based learning, learning that occurs on the job and during the everyday performance of work, tends to be more unique to the employee’s needs and includes training methods such as OJT, simulations, and mobile learning. Both guided competence development and guided contextual learning are usually formal training activities designed and developed by the company to achieve specific learning goals. Employees are expected to participate in these learning activities. The bottom quadrants include social learning, that is, learning activities that involve employees collaborating with each other either one-to-one or in groups or teams. Social competency development enhances specific job-related competencies through interaction with others such as a mentor or coach, or through encountering challenging job experiences. The competencies that are developed are typically not necessary for successful performance of one’s job but help prepare employees for future roles or positions. As a result, mentoring, coaching, and job experiences are considered development activities. We discuss development activities in Chapter Nine, “Employee Development and Career Management.” Social contextual learning is informal and peer-to-peer, and it occurs spontaneously on an as-needed basis. It usually involves employees sharing knowledge on issues, problems, and topics related to their current job. Employees have always learned from face-to-face meetings and phone conversations with peers. What is new is that the increased availability and access to smartphones and tablet computers provide a multimedia, low-cost, easy-to-use, and familiar way to interact with others using social media such as blogs, wikis, social networks (such as Facebook), and microblogs (such as Twitter). This provides many possibilities for technology-aided social contextual294learning. We will discuss blogs, wikis, social networks, and microblogs in Chapter Eight, “Technology-Based Training Methods.” Keep in mind that training methods can cut across the quadrant shown in Figure 7.1 if they include multiple types of learning, such as a virtual classroom that includes simulations and use of social networks.
FIGURE 7.1 A Learning System
Source: From J. Meister and K. Willyerd, The 2020 Workplace. How Innovative Companies Attract, Develop, and Keep Tomorrow’s Employees Today (New York: Harper Business 2010).
Today, most companies’ training methods would be found in Quadrants 1, 2, and 3, but some are beginning to explore how to facilitate learning from peers either face to face or through the use of social media. This is because traditionally training and development activities have been largely “instructor focused.” This means that the instructor or trainer, along with the company, has the primary responsibility for ensuring that employees learn.3 The learner plays a passive role as the receiver of information, and learning occurs to the extent that the appropriate conditions are provided by the learning “experts” or are inherent in the learning method. For example, the instructor bears the responsibility for identifying what should be learned, determining the most appropriate methods, and evaluating the extent to which knowledge and skill acquisition resulted from the learning activity. Increased recognition of the 70-20-10 model has resulted in training emphasizing a more active role for the learner and informal learning.4 Also, the greater availability and use of online and mobile technology (e.g., iPads) to deliver instruction and facilitate social collaboration gives the employee the opportunity to choose when, how, from whom, and even what content to learn.5 Figure 7.1 provides an overview of how much companies are using different training methods. Instructor-led classroom training remains the most frequently used method, but the use of online learning, virtual classroom, or a combination of methods continues to grow.
Regardless of whether the training method is traditional or technology-based, for training to be effective, it needs to be based on the training design model shown in Figure 1.2 in Chapter One, “Introduction to Employee Training and Development.” Needs assessment, a positive learning environment, and transfer of training are critical for training program effectiveness. Recall the discussions of needs assessment, learning, and transfer of training in Chapters Three to Five.
This chapter and Chapter Eight present various training methods. This chapter focuses on traditional training methods, which require an instructor or facilitator and involve face-to-face interaction between trainees. However, most methods discussed here can be adapted for online, virtual reality, mobile learning, or other new training technologies used for training delivery or instruction. For example, a classroom lecture can occur face to face with trainees (traditional training) or can be delivered through a virtual classroom, in which the instructor is not in the same room as the trainees. Also, instruction can be real-time (synchronous) or time-delayed (asynchronous). Through technology, a lecture can be attended live (although the trainees are not in the same classroom as the trainer), or the lecture can be videotaped or burned onto a DVD. The lecture can be viewed by the trainees at their convenience on a notebook computer that gives them access to the appropriate medium for viewing the lecture (e.g., DVD player or Internet connection).
Chapter Eight discusses web-based training, e-learning, virtual reality, and social media. The increased use of technology-based training for delivery of instruction is occurring because of the potential increases in learning effectiveness, as well as the reductions in training costs.
Keep in mind that many companies’ training programs use a combination of methods to capitalize on each method’s strengths for learning and transfer. For example, LQ Management, LLC is an owner operator of limited service hotels in the United States.295It operates more than eight hundred hotels in forty-six states, Canada, and Mexico, under La Quinta Inns and Suites brands.6 La Quinta wants its employees to provide the best rooms, atmosphere, and courteous service at every hotel. La Quinta’s culture emphasizes continuous improvement and its operating philosophy stresses taking care of employees and guests, and keeping the hotels spotlessly cleaned and well maintained.
This means that training plays an important role in the success of every employee. La Quinta uses different training methods to help employees learn, including web-based training, small-group training involving games where they are challenged with real-world scenarios that have occurred at hotel properties, and DVDs. The goal of the small-group training is to make learning fun and at the same time promote learning through conversation and idea sharing. Additionally, employees have multiple training resources available, including LQUniversity (LQU), LQ Connect, and LQ Video Portal. LQU provides access to formal training courses, LQ Connect is a web-based portal that provides learning resources, and LQ Video Portal provides training videos that employees can access at any time. The videos cover La Quinta’s service philosophy, values, and housekeeping and maintenance topics.
The traditional training methods discussed in this chapter are organized into three broad categories: presentation methods, hands-on methods, and group building methods.7 The following sections provide a description of each method, a discussion of its advantages and disadvantages, and tips for the trainer who is designing or choosing the method. The chapter concludes by comparing methods based on several characteristics, including the learning outcomes influenced, the extent to which the method facilitates learning transfer, cost, and effectiveness.
Presentation methods are methods in which trainees are passive recipients of information. This information may include facts, processes, and problem-solving methods. Lectures and audiovisual techniques are presentation methods. It is important to note that instructor-led classroom presentation methods may include lectures, video, workbooks and manuals, DVDs, and games. That is, a mix of methods can actively engage trainees in learning and can help with transfer of training.
In a lecture, trainers communicate through spoken words what they want the trainees to learn. The communication of learned capabilities is primarily one-way—from the trainer to the audience. As Figure 7.2shows, instructor-led classroom presentation remains a popular training method despite new technologies such as interactive video and computer-assisted instruction.
FIGURE 7.2 Use of training methods
Source: Based on “2014 Training Industry report,” Training (November/December 2014): 24.
Lectures have several uses and advantages.8 A lecture is one of the least expensive, least time-consuming ways to present a large amount of information efficiently and in an organized manner to groups of trainees. Lectures are useful when the instructor is the main knowledge holder and it is the most efficient and direct way to provide learners with that knowledge. Lectures that are scripted can be used to deliver a consistent message. A lecture can also demonstrate a subject-matter expert’s passion and enthusiasm for a topic.296For example, an AT&T executive who is in charge of emerging enterprises and partnerships at AT&T shares stories with general managers about how the company created its partnership with Apple to provide service for the iPhone.9 The purpose of the lecture is to convey the message that managers should not be afraid of failure. At the annual meeting of Skanska, a construction company, two former fighter pilots lectured senior executives about the steps needed to successfully execute a mission, including how to define a project, analyze progress, debrief, and celebrate success.10 This was an especially relevant topic because the company was implementing a new business strategy. Also, TED talks (see www.ted.com ) are a good example of how lectures can be motivational, interesting, and provide a simple message to learners in less than twenty minutes. Lectures are also used to support other training methods such as behavior modeling and technology-based techniques. For example, a lecture may be used to communicate information regarding the purpose of the training program, conceptual models, or key behaviors to trainees prior to their receiving training that is more interactive and customized to their specific needs.
TABLE 7.1 Variations of the Lecture Method
|Standard lecture||Trainer talks and may use visual aids provided on the blackboard, whiteboard, or Microsoft PowerPoint slides, while trainees listen and absorb information.|
|Team teaching||Two or more trainers present different topics or alternative views of the same topic.|
|Guest speakers||A speaker or speakers visit the session for a predetermined time period.
Primary instruction is conducted by the instructor.
|Panels||Two or more speakers present information and ask questions.|
|Student presentations||Groups of trainees present topics to the class.|
Table 7.1 describes several variations of the standard lecture method. All have advantages and disadvantages.11 Team teaching brings more expertise and alternative perspectives to297the training session. Team teaching does require more time on the part of trainers to not only prepare their particular session but also coordinate with other trainers, especially when there is a great deal of integration between topics. Panels are good for showing trainees different viewpoints in a debate. A potential disadvantage of a panel, however, is that trainees who are relatively naive about a topic may have difficulty understanding the important points. Guest speakers can motivate learning by bringing to the trainees relevant examples and applications. For guest speakers to be effective, trainers need to set expectations with speakers regarding how their presentation should relate to the course content. Student presentations may increase the material’s meaningfulness and trainees’ attentiveness, but they can inhibit learning if the trainees do not have presentation skills.
The lecture method has several disadvantages. Lectures tend to lack participant involvement, feedback, and meaningful connection to the work environment—all of which inhibit learning and transfer of training. Lectures appeal to few of the trainees’ senses because trainees focus primarily on hearing information or seeing facts, principles, or processes. Lectures also make it difficult for the trainer to judge quickly and efficiently the learners’ level of understanding. To overcome these problems, the lecture is often supplemented with question-and-answer periods, discussion, video, games, case studies, or simulations. These techniques allow the trainer to build into the lecture more active participation, job-related examples, and exercises, which facilitate learning and transfer of training.
For example, Paychex provides training to employees through lectures provided on the web (webinars), which involve learners through the use of chat, polling, and electronic blackboard work.12 PPL Electric Utilities uses a classroom session to introduce its storm damage assessors to devices used to identify damage, patrolling techniques, and reporting.13 Then, the assessors participate in a simulation involving a downed power line and are asked to perform a patrol and provide a written assessment of the power line. Assessors are also invited to participate in an annual storm drill.
Audiovisual instruction includes overheads, slides, and video. Video is used for improving communications skills, interviewing skills, and customer-service skills and for illustrating how procedures (e.g., welding) should be followed. Video is usually used in conjunction with lectures to show trainees real-life experiences and examples.
Microsoft created videos in its AlwaysOnprogram for sales, marketing, and services employees.14 The purpose of the program is to help these employees learn about devices and services that Microsoft offers so they can promote and sell the products. The ten-minute videos are released to employees the same day as new or updated products and services. The videos include product demos, breaking news and announcements, and the latest Windows hardware. The videos can be tagged by product, series, or business group. Links to the videos are provided on the Microsoft web home page and in a weekly newsletter.
Video is also a major component of behavior modeling and, naturally, interactive video instruction. The use of video in training has a number of advantages.15 First, trainers can review, slow down, or speed up the lesson, which gives them flexibility in customizing the session depending on trainees’ expertise. Second, trainees can watch the video multiple times if they have access to it during and after the training session. This gives them control over their learning. Third, trainees can be exposed to equipment, problems, and events298that cannot be easily demonstrated, such as equipment malfunctions, angry customers, or emergencies. Fourth, trainees are provided with consistent instruction. Program content is not affected by the interests and goals of a particular trainer. Fifth, videotaping trainees allows them to see and hear their own performance without the interpretation of the trainer. That is, video provides immediate objective feedback. As a result, trainees cannot attribute poor performance to the bias of external evaluators such as the trainer or peers. Sixth, video requires minimal knowledge of technology and equipment. Most trainers and trainees can easily use a VCR or DVD player.
Most problems in video result from the creative approach used.16 These problems include too much content for the trainee to learn, poor dialogue between the actors (which hinders the credibility and clarity of the message), overuse of humor or music, and drama that makes it confusing for the trainee to understand the important learning points emphasized in the video.
Hands-on methods are training methods that require the trainee to be actively involved in learning. These methods include OJT, simulations, case studies, business games, role-playing, and behavior modeling. These methods are ideal for developing specific skills, understanding how skills and behaviors can be transferred to the job, experiencing all aspects of completing a task, or dealing with interpersonal issues that arise on the job.
On-the-job training (OJT)
On-the-job training (OJT) refers to new or inexperienced employees learning in the work setting and during work by observing peers or managers performing the job and then trying to imitate their behavior. OJT is one of the oldest and most used types of informal training.17 It is considered informal because it does not necessarily occur as part of a training program, and because managers, peers, or mentors serve as trainers. If OJT is too informal, learning is less likely to occur. OJT can be useful for training newly hired employees, upgrading experienced employees’ skills when new technology is introduced, cross-training employees within a department or work unit, and orienting transferred or promoted employees to their new jobs.
OJT takes various forms, including apprenticeships and self-directed learning programs. (Both of these are discussed later in this section.) OJT has several advantages over other training methods.18 It can be customized to the experiences and abilities of trainees. Training is immediately applicable to the job because OJT occurs on the job using actual tools and equipment. As a result, trainees are highly motivated to learn. Both trainees and trainers are at the job site and continue to work while training occurs. This means that companies save the costs related to bringing trainees to a central location, hiring trainers, and renting training facilities. OJT can be offered at any time, and trainers will be available because they are peers or managers. Finally, OJT uses actual job tasks and occurs at work. As a result, skills learned in OJT more easily transfer to the job.
Reliance Industries, one of India’s largest businesses, uses OJT in its Nagothane Manufacturing Division (a refinery that makes polymers and chemicals).19 Because of rapid company growth and the demand for experienced employees, the company needed to299decrease the length of time required for new engineers to contribute. In response to this need, the training staff identified mentors who would help accelerate learning for the new engineers. The mentors and new hires are carefully matched based on an assessment of the mentor’s training style and the new employee’s learning style. Mentors are paired with up to three new employees, each for nine months. The mentors and new employees work together on four learning modules, each of which takes two months to complete. Each module includes predetermined lesson plans, and progress is tracked using an online portal. As a result, the length of time that it takes new engineers to contribute at work has decreased from twelve to six months.
At Sweets Candy, a candy maker based in Salt Lake City, Utah, new employees receive training in basic safety and emergency evacuation procedures in an orientation session and then are assigned a mentor.20The mentor works with the new employee for two weeks, providing hands-on, one-on-one training. Teams hold weekly meetings, and managers provide training on safety issues throughout the year. Employees also receive a weekly safety contact card on which they note safety hazards that they have encountered on their job and how they have fixed the problem. The safety contact cards are turned in, and each month the company has a safety celebration where the cards are put into a drawing. Employees win prizes such as a day off or a $10 gift card. All of the safety contact cards are reviewed to identify safety issues and hazards, which are then communicated to the employees.
OJT is an attractive training method because compared to other methods, it needs less investment in time or money for materials, the trainer’s salary, or instructional design. Managers or peers who are job-knowledge experts are used as instructors. As a result, it may be tempting to let them conduct the training as they believe it should be done.
There are several disadvantages to this unstructured approach to OJT. Managers and peers may not use the same process to complete a task. They may pass on bad habits as well as useful skills. Also, they may not understand that demonstration, practice, and feedback are important conditions for effective OJT. Unstructured OJT can result in poorly trained employees, employees who use ineffective or dangerous methods to produce a product or provide a service, and products or services that vary in quality.
OJT must be structured to be effective. Table 7.2 shows the principles of structured OJT. Because OJT involves learning by observing others, successful OJT is based on the principles emphasized by social learning theory. These include the use of a credible trainer, a manager or peer who models the behavior or skill, communication of specific key behaviors, practice, feedback, and reinforcement. For example, at Rochester Gas and Electric in Rochester, New York, radiation and chemistry instructors teach experienced employees how to conduct OJT.21 While teaching these employees how to demonstrate software to new employees, the trainer may ask the employees to watch other OJT instructors as they train new recruits so that they can learn new teaching techniques. Regardless of the specific type, effective OJT programs include:
1. A policy statement that describes the purpose of OJT and emphasizes the company’s support for it.
2. A clear specification of who is accountable for conducting OJT. If managers conduct OJT, this is mentioned in their job descriptions and is part of their performance evaluations.300
3. A thorough review of OJT practices (program content, types of jobs, length of program, cost savings) at other companies in similar industries.
4. Training of managers and peers in the principles of structured OJT (see Table 7.2).
5. Availability of lesson plans, checklists, procedure manuals, training manuals, learning contracts, and progress reports for use by employees who conduct OJT.
6. Evaluation of employees’ levels of basic skills (reading, computation, and writing) before OJT.22
Self-directed learning has employees take responsibility for all aspects of learning, including when it is conducted and who will be involved.23 Trainees master predetermined training content at their own pace without an instructor. Trainers may serve as facilitators. That is, trainers are available to evaluate learning or answer questions for the trainee. The trainer does not control or disseminate instruction. The learning process is controlled by the trainee. Hilton Worldwide uses self-guided tutorials for its revenue management professionals.24 The Revenue Management at Work course is designed to help learners acquire knowledge, skills, and use tools to help them improve revenue management. Learners identify their own objectives and complete exercises that help them determine what they need to know as well as a learning action plan. Also, self-directed learning could301involve the company providing employees with information such as databases, training courses, and seminars while still holding them responsible for taking the initiative to learn. Because the effectiveness of self-directed learning is based on an employee’s motivation to learn, companies may want to provide seminars on the self-directed learning process, self-management, and incentives for completing learning. Best Buy rewards employees with virtual “badges” when they complete training that is appropriate and necessary for their current career stage.25 For example, employees receive bronze status when they have prepared for a new role by completing foundational training courses. Gold status can be reached when employees become leaders and complete courses relating to managing other employees. In addition to badges for completing training, employees earn pins they can wear on their uniforms and points they can exchange for products and services.
TABLE 7.2 Principles of OJT
|Preparing for Instruction
1. Break down the job into important steps.
2. Prepare the necessary equipment, materials, and supplies.
3. Decide how much time you will devote to OJT and when you expect the employees to be competent in skill areas.
1. Tell the trainees the objective of the task and ask them to watch you demonstrate it.
2. Show the trainees how to do the task without saying anything.
3. Explain the key points or behaviors. (Write out the key points for the trainees, if possible.)
4. Show the trainees how to do it again.
5. Have the trainees do one or more single parts of the task and praise them for correct reproduction (optional).
6. Have the trainees do the entire task and praise them for correct reproduction.
7. If mistakes are made, have the trainees practice until accurate reproduction is achieved.
8. Praise the trainees for their success in learning the task.
Transfer of Training
Provide support materials and job aids such as flowcharts, checklists, or procedures. Arrange for manager or trainer support and observation on the job, especially for difficult or complex tasks.
Prepare and allow time for final tests and exercises and surveys of trainee reactions.
Sources: Based on R. Buckley and J. Caple, “Developing one-to-one training programs,” T+D (April 2010): 108–109; W. J. Rothwell and H. C. Kazanas, “Planned OJT is productive OJT,” Training and Development Journal (October 1990): 53–55; P. J. Decker and B. R. Nathan, Behavior Modeling Training (New York: Praeger Scientific, 1985).
Self-directed learning has several advantages.26 It allows trainees to learn at their own pace and receive feedback about the learning performance. For the company, self-directed learning requires fewer trainers, reduces costs associated with travel and meeting rooms, and makes multiple-site training more realistic. Self-directed learning provides consistent training content that captures the knowledge of experts. Self-directed learning also makes it easier for shift employees to gain access to training materials.
A major disadvantage of self-directed learning, however, is that trainees must be willing to learn on their own and feel comfortable doing so. That is, trainees must be motivated to learn. From the company perspective, self-directed learning results in higher development costs, and development time is longer than with other types of training programs.
Several steps are necessary to develop effective self-directed learning:27
1. Conduct a job analysis to identify the tasks that must be covered.
2. Write trainee-centered learning objectives directly related to the tasks. Because the objectives take the place of the instructor, they must indicate what information is important, what actions the trainee should take, and what the trainee should master.
3. Develop the content for the learning package. This involves developing scripts (for video) or text screens (for computer-based training). The content should be based on the trainee-centered learning objectives. Another consideration in developing the content is the medium (e.g., paper, video, computer, or website) that will be used to communicate the content.
4. Break the content into smaller pieces (“chunks”). The chunks should always begin with the objectives that will be covered and include a method for trainees to evaluate their learning. Practice exercises should also appear in each chunk.
5. Develop an evaluation package that includes evaluation of the trainee and evaluation of the self-directed learning package. Trainee evaluation should be based on the objectives (a process known as criterion referencing). That is, questions should be developed that are written directly from the objectives and can be answered directly from the materials. Evaluation of the self-directed learning package should involve determining ease of use, how up-to-date the material is, whether the package is being used as intended, and whether trainees are mastering the objectives.
Self-directed learning is likely to become more common in the future, as companies seek to train staff flexibly, take advantage of technology, and encourage employees to be proactive in their learning rather than driven by the employer.
Apprenticeship is a work-study training method with both on-the-job and classroom training.28 The typical length of an apprenticeship is four years but this can range from two to six years. To qualify as a registered apprentice under state or federal guidelines, apprentices in most cases must complete at least 144 hours of classroom instruction and, depending on state rules, must obtain a certain number of hours of on-the-job experience.29 For example, learners in the Ohio State Apprenticeship Program are required to complete 144 hours of instruction and a minimum of 2,000 hours of paid, on-the-job training.30 Once their training is complete, apprentices are called journey workers, and they earn certification from the U.S. Department of Labor or a state apprenticeship agency. Table 7.3 shows the top occupations for apprentices. In 2013, there were over 375,000 active apprentices in over 19,000 registered apprenticeship programs. Apprenticeships can be sponsored by individual companies or by groups of companies cooperating with a union. The typical costs of apprenticeships for employers ranges from $170,000 to $250,000, including four years of classroom training, medical benefits, and salary on the job while the apprentices learn. Apprentices are not required to work for the company after they graduate. Unions’ collective bargaining agreements designate what proportion of union dues or hours worked by its members are used to fund apprenticeship programs. As Table 7.3 shows, most apprenticeship programs are in the skilled trades such as plumbing, carpentry, electrical work, and pipe fitting. Table 7.4 is an example of an apprenticeship program for a machinist.
In an apprenticeship program, the hours and weeks that must be devoted to completing specific skill units are clearly defined. The OJT involves assisting a certified tradesperson (a journey worker) at the work site. The OJT portion of the apprenticeship follows the guidelines for effective OJT by including modeling, practice, feedback, and evaluation.31 First, the employer verifies that the trainee has the required knowledge of the operation or process. Next, the trainer (who is usually a more experienced, licensed employee) demonstrates each step of the process, emphasizing safety issues and key steps. The senior employee provides the apprentice with the opportunity to perform the process until all are satisfied that the apprentice can perform it properly and safely.
Apprenticeships have benefits for both the learner and the company.32 Learners earn pay while they learn and their wages increase automatically as their skills improve. Learners303often receive a job offer and good wages from the company that sponsors their training. Apprentices gain a wide range of skills and knowledge based on their classroom and on-the-job experience. They tend to be cross-trained, which means they can move to different tasks and jobs. For example, an individual who completes a machinist apprenticeship can begin working as a machinist, move to other areas of production, sales, and eventually to management. The costs for the learner are usually limited to textbooks unlike the expense of a college education. Employers benefit from high employee retention and loyalty rates among apprentices, improved morale and emphasis on continuous learning, a talent pool, improved safety, and training customized to their needs. For example, graduates of apprenticeship programs make up 13 percent of Newport News Shipbuilding’s workforce. Their program includes eight hundred apprentices in twenty-five occupations. Eighty percent of graduates are still employed by Newport News ten years later. Because apprentices want to learn, it helps create an environment where more experienced employees want to share their knowledge and help apprentices learn new skills. This helps develop a skilled internal labor force, which is likely unavailable outside the company (recall the discussion304in Chapter One of how companies are having difficulty finding employees with the skills they need). At its manufacturing facility in Toledo, Ohio, Libbey Glass has apprenticeship programs in mold making, machine repair, millwrighting, and maintenance repair.33 These programs are viewed as the best jobs within the company because the wage rates are high and because most apprentices are scheduled to work day shifts instead of afternoon or midnight shifts. The apprenticeship program has been costly for the company but has paid dividends. Each apprentice requires the support of a journey worker for each work assignment. This means that work is being performed by two employees when only one worker is normally required. The program also requires apprentices to be evaluated every 1,000 hours to meet U.S. Department of Labor standards. The reviews are conducted by a committee that includes management and department journey workers. The committee also develops tests and other evaluation materials. The committee members cannot perform their normal duties during the time they are reviewing apprentices, so their workload has to be distributed among other employees or rescheduled for some other time. The program offers many benefits to Libbey: The company is developing employees who are more receptive to changes in the work environment; work can be performed at Libbey, so the company does not have to outsource jobs to contract labor; and Libbey is given an edge in attracting talented employees who like the idea that after completing an apprenticeship, they are eligible for promotions to other positions in the company, including management positions. Also, the apprenticeship program helps Libbey tailor training and work experiences to meet specific needs in maintenance repair, which is necessary to create and repair production mold equipment used in making glass products.
TABLE 7.3 Top 10 Occupations for Active Apprentices
Pipe fitter (construction)
Construction craft laborers
Sheet metal worker
Source: Based on “Top 10 Occupations for Fiscal year 2013,” from U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration. Available at www.doleta.gov/OA/data_statistics2013.cfm .
TABLE 7.4 Example of a Machinist Apprenticeship
|680||17.0||Turret Lathe (Conventional and Numerical Control)|
|520||13.0||Horizontal Boring Mills|
|240||6.0||Jig Bore/Jig Grinder|
|600||15.0||Numerical Control Milling|
|240||6.0||Computer Numerical Control|
|Probationary: The following hours are included in the totals above, but must be completed in the first 1,000 hours of apprenticeship:|
|80||2.0||Drill Press (probation)|
|280||7.0||Lathe Work (probation)|
|360||9.0||Milling Machine (probation)|
|40||1.0||Elementary Layout (probation)|
|80||2.0||Related Training (probation)|
Source: A. H. Howard III, “Apprenticeship.” In The ASTD Training and Development Handbook, 4th ed., ed. R. L. Craig (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996): 808.
Apprentice-like programs are also used to prepare new managers. The president and chief executive officer of Goldcorp, a company in the mining industry, offers the chance for MBAs to apply for a nine-month apprenticeship.34 The apprentice shadows Goldcorp’s CEO and observes board meetings, negotiations, mine acquisitions, and other important aspects of the mining industry. Goldcorp hopes the apprenticeships will attract more MBAs to the mining industry, which is viewed by many graduates as an unsafe and dirty business. Hyatt Hotels offers several programs in which management trainees complete training in the areas of facilities, culinary arts, sales, hotel operations, accounting, and catering.35 Trainees rotate through all parts of the hotel and perform all aspects of each job, ranging from washing dishes to catering, and then spend the rest of the training time in their specialty area. Employees who complete the training are placed in entry-level management positions.
Besides the development costs and time commitment that management and journey workers have to make to apprenticeship programs, another disadvantage of many of these programs is that despite efforts to be inclusive, there still may be limited access for minorities and women.36 Also, there is no guarantee that jobs will be available when the program is completed. This is especially a problem in poor economic times such as the 2009 recession.
A simulation is a training method that represents a real-life situation, with trainees’ decisions resulting in outcomes that mirror what would happen if they were on the job. A common example of the use of simulators for training is flight simulators for pilots. Simulations, which allow trainees to see the impact of their decisions in an artificial, risk-free environment, are used to teach production and process skills as well as management305and interpersonal skills. As you will see in Chapter Eight, new technology has helped in the development of virtual reality, a type of simulation that even more closely mimics the work environment.
Simulators replicate the physical equipment, patients, and conditions that employees encounter on the job. For example, the Fire Division of the City of Columbus trains its paramedics and firefighters using mannequins that can present a variety of medical conditions, including strokes and drug overdoses.37 The mannequins can vomit, sweat, breathe, give birth, and be programmed with different mental states. Drugs can be injected and IVs run into the mannequins. For example, at training, paramedics recently encountered a child mannequin that was choking on a piece of candy. After the paramedics ran an IV, applied chest compressions, and gave medications, the mannequin had a pulse. The trainer was controlling the mannequin through a wireless tablet. He observed the paramedics to make sure they were giving the right amount of fluids at the correct time. A debrief including trainers and paramedics is held immediately after training. The debrief focuses on what the paramedics did correctly, what they did wrong, and the knowledge and skills they need to improve.
Thirty high-potential global managers at Automatic Data Processing, Inc., in teams of six, participate in a computer-based business simulation that replicates the company’s business model.38 The team, acting as the company’s executive board, must operate a financially sound and profitable business through five rounds by creating growth opportunities in a competitive global market.
A key aspect of simulators is the degree to which they are similar to the equipment and situations that the trainee will encounter on the job. Recall the discussion of near transfer in Chapter Five, “Program Design.” Simulators need to have elements identical to those found in the work environment. The simulator needs to respond exactly like the equipment would under the conditions and response given by the trainee. For example, flight simulators include distractions that pilots have to deal with, such as hearing chimes in the cockpit from traffic alerts generated by an onboard computer warning system while listening to directions from an air traffic controller.39 For this reason, simulators are expensive to develop and need constant updating as new information about the work environment is obtained.
A case study is a description about how employees or an organization dealt with a difficult situation. Trainees are required to analyze and critique the actions taken, indicating the appropriate actions and suggesting what might have been done differently.40 A major assumption of the case study approach is that employees are most likely to recall and use knowledge and skills if they learn through a process of discovery.41 Cases may be especially appropriate for developing higher-order intellectual skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. These skills are often required by managers, physicians, and other professional employees. Cases also help trainees develop the willingness to take risks given uncertain outcomes, based on their analysis of the situation. To use cases effectively, the learning environment must give trainees the opportunity to prepare and discuss their case analyses. Also, face-to-face or electronic communication among trainees must be arranged. Because trainee involvement is critical for the effectiveness of the case method, learners must be willing and able to analyze the case and then communicate and defend their positions.
306Table 7.5 presents the process used for case development. The first step in the process is to identify a problem or situation. It is important to consider if the story is related to the instructional objectives, will provoke a discussion, forces decision making, can be told in a reasonable time period, and is applicable to the situations that trainees may face. Information on the problem or situation must also be readily accessible. The next step is to research documents, interview participants, and obtain data that provide the details of the case. The third step is to outline the story and link the details and exhibits to relevant points in the story. Fourth, the media used to present the case should be determined. Also, at this point in case development, the trainer should consider how the case exercise will be conducted. This may involve determining if trainees will work individually or in teams, and how the students will report results of their analyses. Finally, the actual case materials need to be prepared. This includes assembling exhibits (figures, tables, articles, job descriptions, etc.), writing the story, preparing questions to guide trainees’ analysis, and writing an interesting, attention-getting case opening that will attract trainees’ attention and provide a quick orientation to the case.
There are a number of available sources of preexisting cases. A major advantage of preexisting cases is that they are already developed, but a disadvantage is that the case may not actually relate to the work situation or problem that the trainee will encounter. It is especially important to review preexisting cases to determine how meaningful they will be to the trainee. Preexisting cases on a wide variety of problems in business management (e.g., in human resource management, operations, marketing, advertising) are available from Harvard Business School, the Darden Business School at the University of Virginia, Ivey Business School at the University of Western Ontario, and various other sources.
KLA-Tencor uses cases studies as part of a program known as “The Situation Room” to help managers learn how to deal with common leadership problems.42 A group of between eight and twenty managers get together face to face or virtually each month for one year and read one of twelve 350–400 word case studies. The case is based on a real situation or problem that occurred at KLA-Tencor. IT has to be broad enough for most managers to have experienced the situation, issue, or problem, but specific enough to be useful. After they read the case, the managers are given three minutes to write their response to the situation. Participants share their responses and their peers provide feedback. If a peer doesn’t like the response, he or she can provide an alternative. After all participants have shared their responses, four teams are formed and they are given “homework.” Between the first and next session participants are expected to meet for an hour in their teams and review content, models, methodology, and or tools that they have been exposed to in prior courses. Based on this review, they are asked to provide a response to the situation. During the second session each of the participants share their prepared responses and discuss307them. Based on what they learned from both the first and second session, participants are asked to prepare a personal response focusing on how they will handle this situation if they encounter it on their job. The outcomes of the sessions are documented on the company’s knowledge management system so practices can be shared with other managers facing similar challenges. Managers who completed the program felt that it was valuable and the company is currently analyzing employee engagement survey scores to see if managers who participated in The Situation Room have improved in the leadership and management categories assessed on the survey.
TABLE 7.5 Process for Case Development
|1. Identify a story.
2. Gather information.
3. Prepare a story outline.
4. Decide on administrative issues.
5. Prepare case materials.
Source: Based on J. Alden and J. K. Kirkhorn, “Case Studies.” In The ASTD Training and Development Handbook, 4th ed., ed. R. L. Craig (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996): 497–516.
Business games require trainees to gather information, analyze it, and make decisions. Business games are primarily used for management skill development. Games stimulate learning because participants are actively involved and because games mimic the competitive nature of business. The types of decisions that participants make in games include all aspects of management practice: labor relations (agreement in contract negotiations), ethics, marketing (the price to charge for a new product), and finance (financing the purchase of new technology). Games are also used for developing job-specific skills such as patient triage or aircraft repair. They are similar to simulations in that they can be used for training that otherwise would involve risk of injury, accidents, or would be too costly.43
Typical games have several characteristics.44 The game involves a contest among trainees or teams of trainees or against an established criterion such as time or quantity. The game is designed to demonstrate an understanding of or application of a knowledge, skill, or behavior. Several alternative courses of action are available to trainees, and trainees can estimate the consequences of each alternative, but only with some uncertainty. Trainees do not know for certain what the consequences of their actions will be because the consequences are partially based on the decisions of other game participants. Finally, rules limit participant behavior.
To ensure learning and transfer of training, games used in training should be simple enough that trainees can play them in a short period of time. The best games generate excitement among the participants and interest in the game. Meaningfulness of the game is enhanced if it is realistic. Trainees need to feel that they are participating in a business and acquiring knowledge, skills, and behaviors that are useful on the job.45 Debriefing from a trainer can help trainees understand the game experience and facilitate learning and transfer. Debriefing can include feedback, discussions of the concepts presented during the game, and instructions in how to use at work the knowledge, skills, or behavior emphasized in the game. Table 7.6 contains some questions that can be used for debriefing.
TABLE 7.6 Questions to Use When Debriefing a Game
|How did the score of the game affect your behavior and the behavior of the team?
What did you learn from the game?
What aspects of the game remind you of situations at work?
How does the game relate to your work?
What did you learn from the game that you plan to use at work?
Source: Based on S. Sugar, “Using Games to Energize Dry Material.” In The ASTD Handbook of Training Design and Delivery, eds. G. Piskurich, P. Beckschi, and B. Hall (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000): 107–120.
At ConAgra Foods, new vice-presidents participate in a game on the last of eight days of leadership training.46 Teams run a simulated business based on ConAgra, rotating308through roles including sales and marketing, research and development, and finance. The teams compete for business and market share while developing their teamwork and other interpersonal skills. At the end of the game, ConAgra executives determine the winning teams based on financial measures, as well as team work skills. CMS Energy uses an online game (The Resolver) to teach employees about conflicts of interest.47 For example, employees understand that accepting bribes is illegal, but they might not understand all of the different types of bribes. The Resolver begins with clinking champagne glasses and receiving tickets for a sporting event. In the game players interact with different characters and make decisions. Each decision they make affects different people, including colleagues, friends, and family members. Those affected by each decision discuss how the player’s decision affects them. Teams of five employees were formed to compete against each other. During game play, the team format facilitated conversations and questions among team members about ethics and conflicts of interest. When the competition ended, team members could see how they ranked against others on an electronic online leaderboard. This stimulated further employee conversations about how they responded to the scenarios and what they should have done differently to earn more points.
A review of research on computer games shows that trainees learn more when they are actively involved in learning the content (rather than reading text or listening), they have unlimited access to the game, and the game is used as a supplement to other training methods such as lecturing.48 Games may give team members a quick start at developing a framework for information and may help develop cohesive groups. For some groups (such as senior executives), games may be more meaningful training activities (because the game is realistic) than are presentation techniques such as classroom instruction.
Role-plays refer to experiences in which trainees take on a role such as a manager, client, or disgruntled employee, and explore what is involved in the role.49 Role-plays are usually included in training programs involving interpersonal skills such as communications, sales, providing performance feedback, coaching, leadership, and team building. Role-plays can be completed in small groups of two to three persons in which all trainees complete the role-play. Or several trainees can volunteer to role-play while the remaining trainees observe them. In a role-play, outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees.
At Wequassett Resort and Golf Club in Chatham, Massachusetts, the training schedule considers both the need to make guests happy and the need to help both new and returning employees learn to do that.50From April to October, the resort is closed, but 340 employees start work in the spring before the resort opens. Half of the employees are receiving training for the first time, while the returning employees need refresher training. Wequassett Academy offers seventy courses in four schools (customer intimacy, technical training, information and technology, and management). The goal of training is to provide the kind of service that will encourage guests to come back again, as well as recommend the resort to their friends. The resort’s training is in step with its business, which requires a personal touch. Training involves classroom instruction with role-plays, as well as the use of DVDs. Employees have to successfully complete competency checklists before they are able to work. For example, food servers may have to take courses in menu knowledge, food service, and wine knowledge.
309For role-plays to be effective, trainers need to engage in several activities before, during, and after the role-play. Table 7.7 shows the activities that comprise effective role-plays.
TABLE 7.7 Activities for Effective Role-Plays
|Provide background information on the purpose of and context for the role-play.
Make sure that a script is provided with enough detail for trainees to understand their role.
The room is arranged so trainees can see and hear the role-players.
Observations sheets and checklists that emphasize the issues in the role-play are developed and used.
Debriefing occurs on the experience of the role-players and observers, the relationship of the role play to the company context, and important learning points.
Sources: Based on S. Karve, “Setting the stage for effective role plays,” T+D (November 2011): 76–77; S. Thiagarajan, “Instructional Games, Simulations, and Role Plays.” In The ASTD Training and Development Handbook: 517–533.
Behavior modeling presents trainees with a model who demonstrates key behaviors to replicate and provides trainees with the opportunity to practice the key behaviors. Behavior modeling is based on the principles of social learning theory (discussed in Chapter Four), which emphasize that learning occurs by (1) observation of behaviors demonstrated by a model and (2) vicarious reinforcement. Vicarious reinforcement occurs when a trainee sees a model receiving reinforcement for using certain behaviors.
Behavior modeling is more appropriate for teaching skills and behaviors than for teaching factual information or knowledge. Research suggests that behavior modeling is one of the most effective techniques for teaching interpersonal and computer skills.51
Table 7.8 presents the activities in a behavior modeling training session. These activities include an introduction, skill preparation and development, and application planning.52 Each training session, which typically lasts four hours, focuses on one interpersonal skill such as coaching or communicating ideas. Each session includes a presentation of the rationale behind the key behaviors, a video of a model performing the key behaviors, practice opportunities using role-playing, evaluation of a model’s performance in the videotape, and a planning session devoted to understanding how the key behaviors can be used on the job. In the practice sessions, trainees are provided with feedback regarding310how closely their behavior matches the key behaviors demonstrated by the model. The role-playing and modeled performance are based on actual incidents in the employment setting in which the trainee needs to demonstrate success.
TABLE 7.8 Activities in a Behavior Modeling Training Program
|Introduction (45 mins.)
· Watch video that presents key behaviors.
· Listen to rationale for skill module.
· Discuss experiences in using skill.
Skill Preparation and Development (2 hrs., 30 mins.)
· View model.
· Participate in role-plays and practice.
· Receive oral and video feedback on performance of key behaviors.
Application Planning (1 hr.)
· Set improvement goals.
· Identify situations in which to use key behaviors.
· Identify on-the-job applications of the key behaviors.
Well-prepared behavior modeling training programs identify the key behaviors, create the modeling display, provide opportunities for practice, and facilitate transfer of training.53 The first step in developing behavior modeling training programs is to determine (1) the tasks that are not being adequately performed due to lack of skill or behavior and (2) the key behaviors that are required to perform the task. A key behavior is one of a set of behaviors that are necessary to complete a task. In behavior modeling, key behaviors are typically performed in a specific order for the task to be completed. Key behaviors are identified through a study of the skills and behaviors necessary to complete the task and the skills or behaviors used by employees who are effective in completing the task.
Table 7.9 presents key behaviors for a behavior modeling training program on problem analysis. The table specifies behaviors that the trainee needs to engage in to be effective in problem analysis skills. Note that the key behaviors do not specify the exact behaviors needed at every step of solving a problem. Rather, the key behaviors in this skill module specify more general behaviors that are appropriate across a wide range of situations. If a task involves a clearly defined series of specific steps that must be accomplished in a specific order, then the key behaviors that are provided are usually more specific and explained in greater detail. For example, tennis players learning how to serve must follow a detailed sequence of activities (e.g., align feet with the baseline, take the racquet back over the head, toss the ball, bring the racquet forward over the head again, pronate the wrist, and strike the ball). People learning interpersonal skills must develop more general key behaviors because there is always more than one way to complete the task. The development of general key behaviors promotes far transfer (discussed in Chapter Five). That is, trainees are prepared to use the key behaviors in a variety of situations.
TABLE 7.9 Example of Key Behaviors in Problem Analysis
|Get all relevant information by:
· Rephrasing the question or problem to see if new issues emerge
· Listing the key problem issues
· Considering other possible sources of information
Identify possible causes.
If necessary, obtain additional information.
Evaluate the information to ensure that all essential criteria are met.
Restate the problem considering new information.
Determine what criteria indicate that the problem or issue has been resolved.
Another important consideration in developing behavior modeling programs is the modeling display. The modeling display provides the key behaviors that the trainees will practice to develop the same set of behaviors. DVDs and online video are the predominant methods used to present modeling displays. In online behavior modeling training the learner can practice the key behaviors by watching scenarios that mimic an interpersonal interaction. At certain points during the scenario, for example, when asked a question, the learner is asked to choose one of several choices of how they would respond. Just like in a real interpersonal interaction, they then see how the other person would react to their311response. (The use of new technology in training is discussed in Chapter Eight.) Effective modeling displays have six characteristics:54
1. The display clearly presents the key behaviors. The music and the characteristics of the situation shown in the display do not interfere with the trainee seeing and understanding the key behaviors.
2. The model is credible to the trainees.
3. An overview of the key behaviors is presented.
4. Each key behavior is repeated. The trainee is shown the relationship between the behavior of the model and each key behavior.
5. A review of the key behaviors is included.
6. The display presents models engaging in both positive use of key behaviors and negative use (i.e., ineffective models not using the key behaviors).
Providing opportunities for practice involves (1) having trainees cognitively rehearse and think about the key behaviors and (2) placing trainees in situations (such as role-plays) in which they have to use the key behaviors. Trainees may interact with one other person in the role-play or in groups of three or more in which each trainee can practice the key behaviors. The most effective practice session allows trainees to practice the behaviors multiple times, in a small group of trainees where anxiety or evaluation apprehension is reduced, with other trainees who understand the company and the job.
Practice sessions should include a method for providing trainees with feedback that should provide reinforcement to the trainee for behaviors performed correctly, as well as information needed to improve behaviors. For example, if role-plays are used, trainees can receive feedback from the other participants who serve as observers when not playing the role. Practice sessions may also be videotaped and played back to the trainees. The use of video objectively captures the trainees’ behavior and provides useful, detailed feedback. Having the trainees view the video shows them specifically how they need to improve their behaviors and identifies behaviors that they are successfully replicating.
Behavior modeling helps ensure that transfer of training occurs by using application planning. Application planning prepares trainees to use the key behaviors on the job (i.e., enhances transfer of training). Application planning involves having all participants prepare a written document identifying specific situations in which they should use the key behaviors. Some training programs actually have trainees complete a “contract” outlining the key behaviors that they agree to use on the job. The trainer may follow up with the trainees to see if they are performing according to the contract. Application planning may also involve preparing trainees to deal with situational factors that may inhibit their use of the key behaviors (similar to relapse prevention, discussed in Chapter Four). As part of the application planning process, a trainee may be paired with another participant, with the stated expectation that the two should periodically communicate with each other to discuss successes and failures in the use of key behaviors.
GROUP BUILDING METHODS
Group building methods are training methods designed to improve team or group effectiveness. A team refers to two or more people with specific roles or functions who work together with shared responsibility to achieve a common goal or mission or complete tasks312in a company.55 In group building methods, trainees share ideas and experiences, build group identity, understand the dynamics of interpersonal relationships, and get to know their own strengths and weaknesses and those of their co-workers. Group techniques focus on helping teams increase their skills for effective teamwork. A number of training techniques are available to improve work group or team performance, to establish a new team, or to improve interactions among different teams. All involve examination of feelings, perceptions, and beliefs about the functioning of the team; discussion; and development of plans to apply what was learned in training to the team’s performance in the work setting. Group building methods include adventure learning, team training, and action learning.
Group building methods often involve experiential learning. Experiential learning training programs have four stages: (1) gain conceptual knowledge and theory; (2) take part in a behavioral simulation; (3) analyze the activity; and (4) connect the theory and activity with on-the-job or real-life situations.56
For experiential training programs to be successful, several guidelines should be followed. The program needs to tie in to a specific business problem. The trainees need to be moved outside their personal comfort zones, but within limits so as not to reduce trainee motivation or ability to understand the purpose of the program. Multiple learning modes should be used, including audio, visual, and kinesthetic. When preparing activities for an experiential training program, trainers should ask trainees for input on the program goals. Clear expectations about the purpose, expected outcomes, and trainees’ role in the program are important. Finally, the training program needs to be evaluated. Training programs that include experiential learning should be linked to changes in employee attitudes, behaviors, and other business results. If training programs that involve experiential learning do not follow these guidelines, they may be questioned. For example, the U.S. Postal Inspector resigned after criticisms surfaced about postal team training activities. Current and former postal employees complained to several U.S. senators about training activities that included having employees wrap each other in toilet paper, dress as cats, and hold signs that spelled “teamwork.”57
Adventure learning is an experiential learning method that focuses on the development of teamwork and leadership skills through structured activities.58 Adventure learning includes wilderness training, outdoor training, improvisational activities, drum circles, and even cooking classes. Adventure learning appears to be best suited for developing skills related to group effectiveness, such as self-awareness, problem solving, conflict management, and risk taking. Adventure learning may involve strenuous, challenging physical activities such as dogsledding or mountain climbing. Adventure learning can also use structured individual and group activities, such as wall climbing, rope courses, trust falls, ladder climbing, and traveling from one tower to another using a device attached to a wire that connects the two towers.
For example, “The Beam” requires team members to cross a six-foot-high beam placed between two trees, using only help from the team. Trainees can help by shouting advice and encouragement.59 Rope-based activities may be held three to four feet or twenty-five to thirty feet above the ground. The high-ropes course is an individual-based exercise whose purpose is to help the trainee overcome fear. The low-ropes course requires the entire team of trainees to complete the course successfully. The purpose is to develop team identity, cohesiveness, and communication skills.
313To improve their leadership skills and teamwork, lawyers at Weil, Gotshal & Manges in New York worked with New York City firefighters to learn how to hook up a fire hose, set the water pressure, and extinguish fires.60At the fire academy, four-person teams rushed into burning buildings and rescued passengers in simulated subway accidents or other emergency drills. The Fire Department of New York (FDNY) program, Firefighter for a Day Team Challenge, was created to help teams develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. These skills are especially necessary for work teams made up of employees from different specialties or areas of expertise who work on large projects or deal with complex problems requiring coordination and delegation. Companies pay up to $2,500 for each four-person team.
Adventure learning can also include demanding activities that require coordination but place less of a physical strain on team members. In drum circles, each team member is given a drum, and facilitators work with the team to create a drumming orchestra. Toyota spent $20,000 for drums to accommodate forty people at its training center in Torrance, California.61 Drum circles are held twice a week. Toyota believes that the drum circles are metaphors for how high-performance teams should operate: cooperatively and smoothly. Cookin’ Up Change is one of many team-building courses offered around the United States by chefs, caterers, hotels, and cooking schools.62 These courses have been used by companies such as Honda and Microsoft. The idea is that cooking classes help strengthen communications and networking skills by requiring team members to work together to create a full-course meal. Each team has to decide who does what kitchen tasks (e.g., cooking, cutting, cleaning) and who prepares the main course, salads, and dessert. Often, team members are required to switch assignments in mid-preparation to see how the team reacts to change.
For adventure learning programs to be successful, exercises should relate to the types of skills that participants are expected to develop. Also, after the exercises, a skilled facilitator should lead a discussion about what happened in the exercise, what was learned, how events in the exercise relate to the job situation, and how to set goals and apply what was learned on the job.63 DaVita Healthcare Partners provides kidney-related health care services such as dialysis.64 DaVita contracted with a training provider to develop a three-hour experiential learning activity that would be collaborative, have a sense of purpose, and reinforce the company’s values of teamwork, fulfillment, and fun. The goals of the program were to understand the importance or why of work, understand how team members relate to patients and to each other, and how to address challenges. The activity started with a discussion of the importance of communicating and collaborating for successful teamwork on the job. Employees were divided into three-member teams and given the task of building prosthetic hands, which would be donated to organizations serving amputees. Building the prostheses provided an opportunity for the achievement of the program goals. The employees built more than fourteen thousand prostheses during the three-hour activity! The activity concluded with a discussion of ways to apply what they learned to their jobs at DaVita.
This approach does have disadvantages, however. The physical demands of some types of adventure learning and the requirement that trainees often touch each other in the exercises may increase a company’s risk for negligence claims due to personal injury, intentional infliction of emotional distress, and invasion of privacy. Also, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) raises questions about requiring disabled employees to participate in physically demanding training experiences.65
314Given the physically demanding nature of adventure learning, it is important to consider when to use it instead of another training method. Adventure learning allows trainees to interact interpersonally in a situation not governed by formal business rules. This type of environment may be important for employees to mold themselves into a cohesive work team. Also, adventure learning exercises allow trainees to share a strong emotional experience. Significant emotional experiences can help trainees break difficult behavior patterns and open trainees to change their behaviors. One of the most important characteristics of adventure learning is that the exercises can serve as metaphors for organizational behavior. That is, trainees will behave in the same way in the exercises that they would when working as a team (e.g., developing a product launch plan). As a result, by analyzing behaviors that occur during the exercise, trainees gain insight into ineffective behaviors.
Does adventure learning work? Rigorous evaluations of its impact on productivity or performance have not been conducted. However, former participants often report that they gained a greater understanding of themselves and how they interact with co-workers.66 One key to an adventure learning program’s success may be the insistence that whole work groups participate together so that group dynamics that inhibit effectiveness can emerge and be discussed.
Team training refers to training that is designed to improve team effectiveness. There are many different types of teams in companies, including production teams, service teams, committees, project teams, and management teams. Teamwork tends to be episodic.67 That is, teams engage in a cycle of identifying their goals, engage in interpersonal interactions, and take actions to achieve their goals. They repeat this cycle as goals are reached and tasks are completed and they move on to new tasks or goals. Regardless of the type of team, successful team performance depends on the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of its members. Figure 7.3 shows the three components of team performance: knowledge, attitudes, and behavior.68 The behavioral requirement means that team members must perform actions that allow them to communicate, coordinate, adapt, and complete complex tasks to accomplish their objective. The knowledge component requires team members to have mental models or memory structures that allow them to function effectively in unanticipated or new situations. Team members’ beliefs about the task and feelings toward each other relate to the attitude component. Team morale, cohesion, and identity are related to team performance. For example, in the military, as well as many areas of the private sector (e.g., nuclear power plants and commercial airlines), much work is315performed by crews, groups, or teams. Successful performance depends on coordination of individual activities to make decisions, on team performance, and on readiness to deal with potentially dangerous situations (e.g., an overheating nuclear reactor). Research suggests that teams that are effectively trained develop procedures to identify and resolve errors, coordinate information gathering, and reinforce each other.69
FIGURE 7.3 Components of Team Performance
Source: Based on E. Salas and J. A. Cannon-Bowers, “Strategies for Team Training.” In Training for 21st-Century Technology: Applications of Psychological Research, eds. M. A. Quinones and A. Dutta (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1997): 249–281.
Figure 7.4 illustrates the four main elements of the structure of team training (tools, methods, strategies, and team training objectives). Several tools help define and organize the delivery of team training.70These tools also provide the environment (e.g., feedback) needed for learning to occur. These tools work in combination with different training methods to help create instructional strategies. These strategies are a combination of the methods, tools, and content required to perform effectively.
FIGURE 7.4 Main Elements of the Structure of Team Training
Sources: Based on E. Salas and J. A. Cannon-Bowers, “Strategies for Team Training.” In Training for 21st-Century Technology: Applications of Psychological Research, eds. M. A. Quinones and A. Dutta (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1997): 249–281; J. Cannon-Bowers and C. Bowers, “Team Development and Functioning.” In S. Zedeck (eds.). APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, eds. S. Zedeck (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2011): 597–650.
The strategies include cross training, coordination training, and team leader training. Cross training has team members understand and practice each other’s skills so that members are prepared to step in and take the place of a member who may temporarily or permanently leave the team. Research suggests that most work teams would benefit from providing members with at least enough understanding of teammates’ roles to discuss trade-offs of various strategies and behaviors that affect team performance.71 Coordination training instructs the team in how to share information and decision-making responsibilities to maximize team performance. Coordination training is especially important for316commercial aviation or surgical teams who are in charge of monitoring different aspects of equipment and the environment but who must share information to make the most effective decisions regarding patient care or aircraft safety and performance. Team leader training refers to training that the team manager or facilitator receives. This may involve training the manager on how to resolve conflict within the team or helping the team coordinate activities or other team skills. Scenario-based training refers to training that places team members in a realistic context while learning. This type of team training helps trainees experience the consequences of their actions, make adjustments, accomplish their tasks, and build team self-efficacy (feeling that the team can successfully perform tasks). Guided team self-correction refers to training that emphasizes continuous learning and knowledge sharing in teams. In this type of training, team members observe each other’s behavior and give and receive performance feedback.
Employees obviously need technical skills that can help the team accomplish its task. But team members also need skills in communication, adaptability, conflict resolution, and other teamwork issues.72 Team training usually involves multiple methods. For example, a lecture or video may be used to disseminate knowledge regarding communication skills to trainees. Role-plays or simulations may be used to give trainees the opportunity to put into practice the communication skills emphasized in the lecture. Regardless of the method chosen, opportunities for practice and feedback need to be included.
For example, Aquarius is an undersea laboratory used during the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO). The base, located several miles off the coast of Key Largo, Florida, is owned by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and managed by the University of North Carolina.73 The NEEMO experience places astronauts in an environment with challenges that parallels the hostile physical and stressful psychological environment experienced in long-duration missions. These challenges can include allowing the crew to experience the effects of gravity in space, on the moon, and Mars, providing a compressed timeline for completing tasks, practicing procedures such as spacewalks to repair or replace equipment and emergency procedures used to rescue crew members, and performing tasks with delayed and limited communications with the mission control crew. The NEEMO experience helps crew members develop important team processes, such as communication, coordination, performance monitoring and back up behaviors, to successfully meet the challenges and perform the task they encounter, both in Aquarius and on their space missions.
United Airlines sent its supervisor, or lead, ramp employees to Pit Instruction and Training (Pit Crew U), which focuses on the preparation, practices, and teamwork of NASCAR pit crews. United is using the training to develop standardized methods to safely and more efficiently unload, load, and send off its airplanes.74 Pit Instruction and Training, located outside Charlotte, North Carolina, has a quarter-mile race track and a pit road with pit stops for six cars. The school offers programs to train new racing pit crews, but most of its business comes from companies interested in teaching their teams to work as safely, efficiently, and effectively as NASCAR pit crews do. NASCAR pit crews work safely, quickly, and efficiently because each crew member knows what tasks to do (change tires, use an air gun, add gasoline, or clean up spills), and after the crew members have finished servicing the race car, they move new equipment into position in anticipation of the next pit stop. At Pit Crew U, trainees actually work as pit crews. They learn how to handle jacks, change tires, and fill fuel tanks on race cars. They are videotaped and timed just317like real pit crews, and they receive feedback from trainers and from professional pit crew members who work on NASCAR teams. Also, the program requires trainees to deal with unforeseen circumstances similar to what they may encounter on the job. For example, at one pit stop, lug nuts had been sprinkled intentionally in the area where the race car stops, and the United employees were observed to see whether they noticed the lug nuts and cleaned them up. On their jobs, ramp employees are responsible for removing debris from the tarmac so that it is not sucked into jet engines or does not harm equipment. At another pit stop, United teams had to work with fewer members, which sometimes occurs when ramp crews are understaffed due to absences.
United’s training is part of a multimillion-dollar investment that includes updating equipment and providing bag scanners. The purpose of the training is to standardize the tasks of ramp team members, to reinforce the need for ramp teams to be orderly and communicative, and to increase morale. Training has been optional for ramp employees, and they have survived layoffs and have been asked to make wage concessions to help pull the company out of bankruptcy. United has already started scheduling shorter ground times at some airports in anticipation of the positive results of the program. With shorter ground times, United can offer more daily flights without having to buy more airplanes. United hopes to make the airline more competitive by cutting the average airplane ground time by eight minutes.
Action learning gives teams or work groups an actual problem, has them work on solving it and committing to an action plan, and then holds them accountable for carrying out the plan.75 Companies use action learning to solve important problems, develop leaders, quickly build high-performance teams, and transform the organizational culture. Table 7.10 shows the steps involved in action learning. Several types of problems are addressed in action learning, including how to change the business, better use technology, remove barriers between the customer and company, and develop global leaders.318Typically, action learning involves between six and thirty employees. It may also include customers and vendors. There are several variations in the composition of the group. One variation is that the group includes a single customer for the problem being dealt with. Sometimes the groups include cross-functional representatives who all have a stake in the problem. Or the group may involve employees from multiple functions who all focus on their own functional problems, each contributing to solving the problems identified. Employees are asked to develop novel ideas and solutions in a short period of time. The teams usually need to gather data for problem solving by visiting customers, employees, academics, and/or industry leaders. Once the teams have gathered data and developed their recommendations they are required to present them to top-level executives.
TABLE 7.10 Steps in Action Learning
|· Identification of the sponsors of action learning, including CEOs and top managers
· Identification of the problem or issue
· Identification and selection of the group who can address the problem
· Identification of coaches who can help the group reframe the problem and improve its problem solving by listening, giving feedback, offering assumptions, and so on
· Presentation of the problem to the group
· Group discussion that includes reframing the problem and agreement on what the problem is, what the group should do to solve the problem, and how the group should proceed
· Data gathering and analysis relevant to solving the problem, done by the group as a whole as well as by individual members
· Group presentation on how to solve the problem, with the goal of securing a commitment from the sponsors to act on the group’s recommendations
· Self-reflection and debriefing (e.g., What have the group and group members learned? What might they have done differently?)
Sources: Based on P. Malone, “The untapped power of action learning,” T+D (August 2013): 54–59; M. Pedler and C. Abbott, Facilitating Action Learning (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013).
Consider how Sony Music and Kirin Brewery used action learning teams to provide solutions to urgent and complex business problems.76 Sony Music was losing income because of sales losses due to consumers’ increased use of downloaded music such as iTunes. An action learning team of seven managers, all from different countries, met for a week in London, England, to identify ways to increase revenue. The solution they developed was a services contract in which Sony Music would distribute music and arrange artists tours, market their merchandise, and help get their music placed in movies and television shows. This solution led to millions of dollars in revenue and helped Sony sign contracts with music artists from other record labels. Leaking beer cans and stale beer were examples of the types of quality problems that Kirin Brewery was experiencing, resulting in decreased sales and undermining customer relationships. An action learning team with representatives from customer service, sales, manufacturing, and quality control was given the problem to develop a strategy for producing a higher quality can. The action learning team developed a redesigned beer can, resulting in reduced manufacturing time, costs, and customer complaints. The process action learning maximizes learning and transfer of training because it involves real-time problems that employees are facing. Also, action learning can be useful for identifying dysfunctional team dynamics that can get in the way of effective problem solving. Action learning at General Electric has required employees to use and apply skills to team building, problem solving, change management, conflict resolution, communications, coaching, and facilitation. General Electric believes that action learning has resulted in such benefits as greater speed in decision making and implementation, employees who work more easily across borders and business units, management that is willing to take more risks, and an increase in open dialogue and trust among employees.77
Six Sigma, Black Belt Training, and Kaizen
Six Sigma and Kaizen, black belt training programs, involve principles of action learning. Six Sigma and Kaizen provide employees with measurement and statistical tools to help reduce defects and to cut costs.78Six Sigma is a quality standard with a goal of no more than 3.4 defects per million processes. There are several levels of Six Sigma training, resulting in employees becoming certified as green belts, champions, or black belts.79 To become black belts, trainees must participate in workshops and written assignments coached by expert instructors. The training involves four 4-day sessions over about sixteen weeks. Between training sessions, candidates apply what they learn to assigned projects and then use them in the next training session. Trainees are also required to complete319not only oral and written exams but also two or more projects that have a significant impact on the company’s bottom line. After completing black belt training, employees are able to develop, coach, and lead Six Sigma teams; mentor and give advice to management on useful Six Sigma projects; and provide Six Sigma tools and statistical methods to team members. After black belts lead several project teams, they can take additional training and be certified as master black belts. Master black belts can teach other black belts and help senior managers integrate Six Sigma into the company’s business goals.
First Data Corporation used Six Sigma to train green belts and yellow belts with the goal of improving the execution of projects, alignment with customers, and creating a continuous improvement culture.80The green belts and yellow belt programs include e-learning, instructor-led courses, coaching, and support transfer of training through an online community of practice, Six Sigma fair days, assignments, and projects linked to business goals. The Six Sigma training has resulted in beneficial projects, resulting in outcomes such as reducing the time it takes to hire a new employee from seventy-five to forty-five days and reducing waste, defects, and rework.
Just Born, the company that makes Mike and Ike and Peeps candies, uses the Wow … Now Improvement Process, a customized Kaizen process to improve business processes and results.81 The Wow … Now Improvement Process includes training employees how to identify improvement opportunities, collect data, make improvements, measure results, and refine practices based on the results. Kaizen, the Japanese word for improvement, is one of the underlying principles of lean manufacturing and total quality management (we discussed lean thinking in Chapter One). Kaizen refers to practices participated in by employees from all levels of the company that focus on continuous improvement of business processes.82 As the Wow … Now Improvement Process illustrates, Kaizen involves considering a continuous cycle of activities, including planning, doing, checking, and acting (PDCA). Statistical process control techniques are used by employees to identify causes of problems and potential solutions. They include process flow analysis, cause-and-effect diagrams, control charts, histograms, and scattergrams.
CHOOSING A TRAINING METHOD
As a trainer or manager, you will likely be asked to choose a training method. Given the large number of training methods available to you, this task may seem difficult. One way to choose a training method is to compare methods. Table 7.11 evaluates each training method discussed in this chapter according to a number of characteristics. The types of learning outcomes related to each method are identified. Also, for each method, a high, medium, or low rating is provided for each characteristic of the learning environment, for transfer of training, for cost, and for effectiveness.
TABLE 7.11 Comparison of Training Methods
How might you use this table to choose a training method? The first step in choosing a method is to identify the type of learning outcome that you want training to influence. As discussed in Chapter Four, these outcomes include verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, attitudes, and motor skills. Training methods may influence one or several learning outcomes. Research on specific learning methods has shown that for learning to be effective, the instructional method needs to match the desired learning outcome. For example, research on behavior modeling and role-playing shows that these321methods lead to positive results, but their effectiveness varies according to the evaluation criteria used.83 This emphasizes that the particular learning method used to deliver learning is not what is most important. Rather, the choice of the learning method should be based on the desired learning outcomes and the features that facilitate learning and transfer of training. Once you have identified a learning method, the next step is to consider the extent to which the method facilitates learning and transfer of training, the costs related to the development and use of the method, and its effectiveness.
As was discussed in Chapter Four, for learning to occur, trainees must understand the objectives of the training program, training content should be meaningful, and trainees should have the opportunity to practice and receive feedback. Also, a powerful way to learn is through observing and interacting with others. As you may recall from Chapter Five, transfer of training refers to the extent to which training will be used on the job. In general, the more the training content and environment prepare trainees for use of learning outcomes on the job, the greater the likelihood that transfer will occur. As discussed in Chapter Six, “Training Evaluation,” two types of costs are important: development costs and administrative costs. Development costs relate to design of the training program, including costs to buy or create the program. Administrative costs are incurred each time that the training method is used. These include costs related to consultants, instructors, materials, and trainers. The effectiveness rating is based on both academic research and practitioner recommendations.
Several trends in Table 7.11 are worth noting. First, there is considerable overlap between learning outcomes across the training methods. Group building methods are unique because they focus on individual as well as team learning (e.g., improving group processes). If you are interested in improving the effectiveness of groups or teams, you should choose one of the group building methods (e.g., adventure learning, team training, or action learning). Second, comparing the presentation methods to the hands-on methods illustrates that most hands-on methods provide a better learning environment and transfer of training than do the presentation methods. The presentation methods are also less effective than the hands-on methods. If you are not limited by the amount of money that can be used for development or administration, choose a hands-on method over a presentation method. The training budget for developing training methods can influence the method chosen. If you have a limited budget for developing new training methods, use structured OJT—a relatively inexpensive, yet effective, hands-on method. If you have a larger budget, you might want to consider hands-on methods that facilitate transfer of training, such as simulators. Keep in mind that many of the methods discussed in this chapter can be adapted for use in online learning, e-learning, and distance learning. These training methods are discussed in Chapter Eight.
If possible, you may want to use several different methods within a single training program to capitalize on the different strengths of each method for facilitating learning and transfer. For example, Nationwide Mutual Insurance uses several different methods to train new agents.84 An interactive game is used to help agents understand the life cycle of an insurance policy. It includes an animated simulation using different customer profiles. New agents watch and listen to experienced agents interacting and communicating with customers both face to face and over the phone. They also engage in self-directed learning, including calling competitors to get an322insurance quote and evaluating their experience.
Companies are using a variety of training methods to guide competency development and contextual learning. Although new technology such as social networks are being used by some companies for training delivery and instruction, most training is still conducted face to face with an instructor. This chapter discussed traditional face-to-face training methods, including presentation, hands-on, and group building training methods. Presentation methods (such as lecturing) are effective for efficiently communicating information (knowledge) to a large number of trainees. Presentation methods need to be supplemented with opportunities for trainees to practice, discuss, and receive feedback to facilitate learning. Hands-on methods get trainees directly involved in learning. Hands-on methods are ideal for developing skills and behaviors. Hands-on methods include OJT, simulations, self-directed learning, business games, case studies, role-playing, and behavior modeling. These methods can be expensive to develop but incorporate the conditions needed for learning and transfer of training to occur. Group building methods such as team training, action learning, and adventure learning focus on helping teams increase the skills needed for effective teamwork (e.g., self-awareness, conflict resolution, and coordination) and help build team cohesion and identity. Group building techniques may include the use of presentation methods, as well as exercises during which team members interact and communicate with each other. Team training has a long history of success in preparing flight crews and surgical teams, but its effectiveness for developing management teams has not been clearly established.
70-20-10 model, 293
traditional training methods, 295
presentation methods, 296
audiovisual instruction, 298
hands-on methods, 299
on-the-job training (OJT), 299
self-directed learning, 301
case study, 306
business games, 308
behavior modeling, 310
vicarious reinforcement, 310
key behavior, 311
modeling display, 311
application planning, 312
group building methods, 312
experiential learning, 313
adventure learning, 313
team training, 315
cross training, 316
coordination training, 316
team leader training, 317
scenario-based training, 317
guided team self-correction, 317
action learning, 318
1. What are the implications of the 70-20-10 model for choosing a training method?
2. What are the differences between social contextual learning and guided competency development? Are both types of learning (and associated training methods) necessary? Explain.
3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the lecture, the case study, and behavior modeling?
4. If you had to choose between adventure learning and action learning for developing an effective team, which would you choose? Defend your choice.
5. Discuss the process of behavior modeling training.323
6. How can the characteristics of the trainee affect self-directed learning?
7. What are the components of effective team performance? How might training strengthen these components?
8. Table 7.11 compares training methods on a number of characteristics. Explain why simulation and behavior modeling receive high ratings for transfer of training.
9. What are some reasons why on-the-job training (OJT) can prove ineffective? What can be done to ensure its effectiveness?
10. Why are apprenticeship programs attractive to employees? Why are they attractive to companies?
11. Discuss the steps of an action learning program. Which aspect of action learning do you think is most beneficial for learning? Which aspect is most beneficial for transfer of training? Explain why. Defend your choices.
1. Choose a job with which you are familiar. Develop a self-directed learning module for a skill that is important for that job.
2. Go to www.sabrehq.com , the website for Sabre Corporate Development. Click on Team Building Events. Choose one of the activities and events found on this page, and review it. Discuss what you would do to ensure that the team building event you selected is successful.
3. Divide into teams of two students. One student should be designated as a “trainer,” the other as a “trainee.” The trainee should briefly leave the room while the trainer reads the instructions for folding a paper cup. After the trainers have read the instructions, the trainees should return to the room. The trainers should then train the trainees in how to fold a paper cup (which should take about 15 minutes). When the instructor calls time, the trainers should note the steps they followed to conduct the training. The trainees should record their evaluations of the strengths and weaknesses of the training session (5–10 minutes). If time allows, switch roles.
SUPPLEMENT TO APPLICATION ASSIGNMENT 3
Steps and Key Points in Folding a Paper Cup:
|Steps in the Operation||Key Points|
|Step: A logical segment of the operation in which something is done to advance the task.||Key point: Any directions or bits of information that help perform the step correctly, safely, and easily.|
|Place 8 1/2″ × 11″ sheet of paper in front of you on a flat surface.||1. Be sure that the surface is flat—free of interfering objects.|
|Fold the lower-left corner up.||2a. Line up the right edges.
b. Make a sharp crease.
|Turn the paper over.||3. Pick up the lower-right corner with your right hand and place it at the top. (The folded flap should not be underneath.)|
|Fold the excess lower edge up.||4a. Line up the right edges. The fold should line up with the bottom edge.
b. Make a sharp crease.324
|Fold the lower-left corner flush with edge “A.”||5a. Keep edges “B” and “C” parallel.
b. Hold the bottom edge in the center with your finger while making the fold.
|Fold the upper corner to point “D.”||6a. Hold the cup firmly with your left hand.
b. Bring the upper corner down with your right hand.
|Separate the lower-right corner and fold back.||7a. Hold the cup with your left hand.
b. Fold back with your right hand.
c. Make sharp creases.
|Turn the cup over and fold the remaining flap back.||8. Make sharp creases.|
|Check the cup to be sure it will hold water.||9. Open the cup and look inside.|
Source: Adapted from P. Decker and B. Nathan, Behavior Modeling Training (New York: Praeger Scientific, 1985).
Be prepared to discuss the training process and your reactions as a trainer or trainee. Also, be prepared to discuss the extent to which the training followed the steps for effective OJT.
Describe the situation that the simulation is designed to represent. What elements in the simulation replicate the work environment? How could the simulation be improved to ensure that learning and transfer of training occur?
5. Watch the Wendy’s training video “Wendy’s Training Video Chili Can Be Served With Cheese” on YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOvHZDGK-kY.
How is this video effective for helping staff learn how to serve Wendy’s food to customers? What would you add to the video to increase its effectiveness?
6. Go to www.drumcafe.com , the website for Drum Cafe, a company that specializes in corporate team building through the use of drum circles. Review the website and answer the following questions:
f. What are drum circles? What skills can participants develop?325
f. What recommendations would you make to a company that uses drum circles to train teams regarding how to ensure that transfer of training occurs?
f. Do you think that drum circles are good for team training? Why or why not?
1. Go to www.5off5on.com , the website for Pit Instruction and Training, a company that provides training for auto racing pit crews as well as team training. Click on “Corporate Training.” Read about Lean Performance U and Team Performance U. Watch the YouTube video of the training at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6akX9THcrg and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVQefr0bMNo.
g. What skills can this type of training improve?
g. What could be done to ensure transfer of training occurs?
g. How would you recommend evaluating the effectiveness of this program?
1. Go to www.ted.com , the website for TED, a nonprofit devoted to spreading ideas through short talks. TED stands for “Technology, Entertainment, & Design.” Choose a TED talk and watch it. First, briefly describe the purpose and content of the talk. Next, consider the speaker. What did they do that held (or distracted) your attention?
1. Go to http://www.wtb.wa.gov/Documents/OJTBestPracticesManual_emailversion.pdf, which describes on-the-job training best practices for the Aerospace Joint Apprenticeship Committee. What steps should be taken to develop an on-the-job training program for apprentices? List and briefly describe each step and its importance to the training process.
Training Methods for Bank Tellers
BB&T Corporation, headquartered in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, is among the nation’s top financial holding companies, with $186 billion in assets. Its bank subsidiaries operate approximately 1,800 financial centers in twelve states and Washington, D.C. BB&T’s operating strategy distinguishes it from other financial holding companies. BB&T’s banking subsidiaries are organized as a group of community banks, each with a regional president, which allows decisions to be made locally, close to the client. This also makes BB&T’s client service more responsive, reliable, and empathetic. Typical the bank tellers’ tasks include:
· Balancing currency, coin, and checks in cash drawers at the end of each shift, and calculating daily transactions using computers, calculators, or adding machines
· Cashing checks and paying out money after verifying that signatures are correct, that written and numerical amounts agree, and that accounts have sufficient funds
· Receiving checks and cash for deposit, verifying amounts, and checking the accuracy of deposit slips
· Examining checks for endorsements and to verify other information such as dates, bank names, identification of the persons receiving payments, and the legality of the documents
· Entering customers’ transactions into computers to record transactions and issue computer-generated receipts
· Counting currency, coins, and checks received, either by hand or using a currency-counting machine, to prepare them for deposit or shipment to branch banks or the Federal Reserve Bank
· Preparing and verifying cashier’s checks
· Sorting and filing deposit slips and checks
· Ordering a supply of cash to meet daily needs
· Receiving and counting daily inventories of cash drafts and travelers’ checks326
Recently, Apple introduced Apple Pay, which allows customers to make credit card purchases or pay bills using contactless payment technology and unique security features. Customers can use their iPhones, Apple Watches, or iPads to make payments and purchases in a simple, secure, and private way. You can learn more about Apple Pay at www.apple.com/apple-pay .
Describe the methods or combination of methods you would recommend to train BB&T’s tellers on Apple Pay. Justify your choice of methods.
Sources: Based on “BB&T Winston-Salem, North Carolina, Channeling Aristotle,” T+D (October 2008): 50–52; www.bbt.com , website for BB&T. Tasks and work responsibilities are taken from http://onlinecenter.onet.org, O*Net online summary report for bank tellers (Job Code 43-3071.00), accessed March 25, 2015, www.apple.com/apple-pay.
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