I need some assistance with these assignment. incidence of income tax Thank you in advance for the help!

I need some assistance with these assignment. incidence of income tax Thank you in advance for the help! Under the progressive income tax policy (a progressive tax takes a larger share of the income of high-income taxpayers than of low-income taxpayers).&nbsp. The incidence of the tax is shifted more on the high-income group than to the low-income group (Samuelson and Nordhaus 1992). Following are the effects of taxation on income:

Under progressive income tax policy, ya family with $50,000 income is taxed more than one with $20,000 of income.

Not only does the higher-income family pay a larger income tax, but it in fact pays a higher fraction of its income.

Such income tax policies are aimed to minimize the distortions between haves and have-nots.

It influences the consumption patterns of higher-income families and affects overall consumption patterns of an economy.

On the other hand, progressive income taxation policies are politically controversial issues and are regularly used in electoral campaigns. A larger share of the burden of VAT falls upon the consumers because the producer/manufacturer (VAT registered persons or companies) pass on the financial impact of such a tax on to the consumers.

Suppose that a product, say the laptop, has been imposed a VAT. The burden of this tax imposition will not be born by the supplier or manufacturer of the laptops rather it will be passed on to its customers by raising the price of laptops by the percentage of the tax imposed. The ultimate consumer bears the burden of VAT and it’s him whose consumption is being affected through a value-added tax.

Advantages:

Registration for VAT makes an overall good impression for your company. Since large corporations usually register for VAT, therefore, if a newly established company registers itself for VAT, the customers, and for that matter suppliers, heed it as an established, large company.

Registration for VAT also has financial benefits. If a newly-established company registers for VAT then it automatically avoids the penalties for non-registering when it becomes legally mandatory to register for VAT. It is a precautionary step.

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I need help creating a thesis and an outline on Discuss the rise in importance of FDI for Multinational Enterprises. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. A

I need help creating a thesis and an outline on Discuss the rise in importance of FDI for Multinational Enterprises. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. This deepening and widening economic integration is achieved through three main channels such as trade, foreign direct investment and the international transfer of knowledge and technology. The enterprises, which have dispersed their business processes across the globe through the channel of FDI, are termed as Multinational Enterprises (MNEs). These MNEs are the main pillars in the globalized economies which involved in the world economic activities. Though trade which principally means export-import of goods and services across the geographical regions are there since many years but the concept of foreign direct investment (FDI) is rather of recent origin. Being different from portfolio investment this type of investment entails a firm to open its subsidiary in a foreign land to expand its business activities there. In today’s fast moving global economy the scale of FDI made by a multinational enterprise plays a vital role for the growth of developed as well as developing countries across the world. In this essay the rise in FDI as well as its importance for the MNEs has been vividly described in the Section-II and also an analysis of the circumstances under which FDI may or may not be an appropriate strategy for an international business has been made in the Section-III. The conclusion to the discussion has been given in Section-IV. The analysis of the rising trend in the various regions of the world and the possible impact of FDI in the host and home economies has been made in this paper.

II. FDI: The Increasing Trend in Global Economy

“FDI is defined as a firm based in one country (the ‘home country’) owning 10 percent or more of the stock of a company located in a foreign country (the ‘host country’) — this amount of stock is generally enough to give the home country firm significant control rights over the host country firm. Most FDI is in wholly-owned or nearly wholly-owned subsidiaries.” (http://www.populareconomics.org/globalization/html%20/Glossary.html). Thus FDI is different from the portfolio investment which may cross borders but lacks such controls over it. This FDI may be ‘Green-field’1 or ‘Acquisition/Mergers’2 and also it may be ‘horizontal’3 or ‘vertical’4. “Thus to create, acquire or expand a foreign subsidiary, MNEs undertake FDI. The total direct capital owned by non-residents in a given country each year constitutes the stock of FDI” (Navaretti & Venables, 3).

If one makes a comparison between export and FDI during the last twentieth century one can see that the exports grew much stronger than FDI in the pre 1980 period while the FDI sown an unprecedented rise after 1985. “The worldwide real GDP increased at a rate of 2.5% per year between 1985 and 1999 and worldwide exports by 5.6%, worldwide real inflows of FDI increased by 17.7%.” (Navaretti & Venables 3). Also it is seen that the worldwide FDI stocks increased from $794 billion to $1, 768 billion in the second half of the eighties (Table-1). That means they more than doubled in just six years. The inflow of FDI peaked in the year 2000 but suddenly declined from the year 2001 due to slowing down of economy.

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Complete 5 pages APA formatted article: Technology Implementation Paper. There are numerous examples: travel and holiday agents are all linked by networks directly to the databases maintained by airli

Complete 5 pages APA formatted article: Technology Implementation Paper. There are numerous examples: travel and holiday agents are all linked by networks directly to the databases maintained by airlines, railways and holiday companies making possible virtually instantaneous booking, computing cash tills and bar-code readers in supermarkets are linked to computers and form part of an integrated stock control, ordering and sales analysis system without which modern supermarkets could not function.

New technology is having effects on organization structures. Because of the easier and speedier communications and the increasing sophistication of automatic decision making by computers, middle management is tending to disappear in many organizations including service centers and manufacturing, hospitals and trade organizations, etc. (Frame, D.J., (2002). Organizations are becoming flatter and leaner because top management are able to monitor operations more directly and computers are now taking many decisions previously taken by middle management. Examples include: computerized stock and production control in manufacturing, automatic credit scoring and loan authorizations in banks. IT is also changing the nature of the debate about centralization versus decentralization. Properly planned technology systems with distributed data processing enable both more centralization of standards, performance targets and policies and more decentralization of operations through more immediate and speedier service to customers (Bretschneider, Heintze, 2000). Also, restructuring involves changes in routine processes towards goals-oriented performance. Following Bohmer et al (2001) “The design of a technology often reinforces a habitual routine. for example, the design of a commercial aircraft’s cockpit is conducive to certain standard operating procedures for takeoff and landing” (685).

In this case, transaction processing systems are pre-specified and changes require the intervention of system specialists. transaction processing comprises: activity processing, report processing and enquiry processing. Businesses are increasingly being reorganized into processes rather than functions (Knop et al, 1998). This is known as process re-engineering and means that firms must identify their core processes and design them so that delays, confusion and demarcations are reduced or eliminated. For instance, the case of The Bell Group vividly portrays implementation of CRM (Customer Relationship management) system and its success for the company. The project includes such areas as accounting, manufacturing, warehousing, field service, and shipping systems. All technological systems were launched separately in order to avoid mistakes and errors (The Bell Group, 2005). It is now possible for managers to obtain information on organizational performance down to the level of specific transactions from just about anywhere in the organization at any time. This new intensity of information makes possible far more precise planning, forecasting, and monitoring (Schwalbe, 2005).

A New Employee

Managers must deal with new people issues because the changes brought about by technology definitely require a new kind of employee. The use of technology requires more problem solving skills and the ability to interpret data and is thus likely to lead to a widening gulf between skilled and unskilled workers.

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Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on the high court, the crown court & magistrates court.

Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on the high court, the crown court & magistrates court. All offences which can be tried in the Crown Court are known as indictable offences. The most serious indictable offences which must be tried in the Crown Court are known as indictable-only offences. There are other indictable offences, such as theft, which can, but need not, be tried in the Crown Court. These are known as either-way offences. Below the Crown Court, at the lowest rung of the criminal court hierarchy, are the inferior magistrates’ courts. Proceedings in magistrates’ courts are presided over either by a bench of lay justices of the peace, who sit with a legally qualified clerk, or by a legally qualified stipendiary magistrate. Magistrates’ courts try the either-way offences which are not tried in the Crown Court and also summary offences. These are crimes created by statute which must be tried by a magistrates’ court. An either-way offence cannot be tried in a magistrates’ court unless the accused assents to this and a magistrates’ court agrees that the summary procedure is appropriate. If the accused does not consent or the magistrates’ court vetoes a summary trial the offence must be tried on indictment in the Crown Court regardless of whether the accused intends to plead guilty or not guilty. The only effect of a guilty plea is to make it unnecessary to empanel a jury in the Crown Court.

 

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You will prepare and submit a term paper on Random Walk Theory of Share Price Movements. Your paper should be a minimum of 750 words in length.

You will prepare and submit a term paper on Random Walk Theory of Share Price Movements. Your paper should be a minimum of 750 words in length. A lot many efforts were made towards identifying a predictable trading pattern which could be used for chasing profitable deals. From the mid-1950s to the early 1980s, a random walk theory (RWT) of share prices was developed based on the past empirical evidence of randomness in share price movements. RWT basically stated that speculative price changes were independent and identically distributed, so that the past price data had no predictive power for future share price movements. RWT also stated that the distribution of price changes from transaction to transaction had finite variance. In addition, if transactions were fairly uniformly spread across time and were large in numbers, then the Central Limit Theorem suggested that the price changes would be normally distributed. Kendall (1953) calculated the first differences of twenty-two different speculative price series at weekly intervals from 486 to 2,387 terms. He concluded that the random changes from one term to the next were large and obfuscated any systematic effect which may be present. In fact, he stated that ‘the data behaved almost like a wandering series’ (random walk). Specifically, an analysis of share price movement revealed little serial correlation, with the conclusion that there was very little predictability of movements in share prices for a week ahead without extraneous information. In 1959, Roberts generated a pattern of market levels and changes akin to actual levels and changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Index. He estimated the probability of different share price movements over time by using a frequency distribution of historical changes in the weekly market index, and assumed weekly changes were independently drawn from a normal distribution with a mean of + 0.5 and a standard deviation of 5.0. He concluded that changes in security prices behaved as if they had been generated by a simple chance model .The fundamental concept behind random walk theory is that competition in perfect markets would remove excess economic profits, except from those parties who exercised some degree of market monopoly. This meant that a trader with specialized information about future events could profit from the monopolistic access to information, but that fundamental and technical analysts who rely on past information should not expect to have speculative gains.

From the theory of random walks arose the theory of efficient markets. The Efficient Markets Hypothesis (EMH) states that current prices always ‘fully reflect’ available information, so that the only reason prices change between time t and time t+1 is the arrival of new information. The EMH requires that only two necessary conditions be met. First, the market must be aware of all available information .The type of information available is determined by the strength of the EMH being tested. In a Weak Form EMH, current prices entirely reflect all that can be known from the study of historical prices and trading volumes.

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Write a 2 pages paper on since the ratification of the world trade organization, seldom does a business.

Write a 2 pages paper on since the ratification of the world trade organization, seldom does a business. Globalization is now a phenomenon that has tremendous impact in businesses worldwide. Since the ratification of the World Trade Organization, seldom does a business entity escape from the effects of international relations. This means that to succeed in this global environment firms should develop effective skills in fostering relationships with foreigners. And no other person is qualified for this endeavor other than persons who had various interpersonal interactions with people of diverse and multifaceted cultures. As a Chinese who is presently taking my chances in the United States to obtain education from one of the world’s top business schools, Wharton, I believe my most potent strength lies in this: my capacity to infuse a fresh cross-cultural perspective in the study group.

Studying abroad is a very daunting task. I have to adapt to a culture very different from those where I belong. Receiving my basic education in Hong Kong, I realized beforehand that Asians, especially the Chinese, have different learning and interpersonal orientation from Westerns. I have noticed and learned through experience that our ancestors instilled discipline and obedience in our educational system, Westerners, on the other hand, engenders independence and creativity. Aside from this, in business, Chinese and other East Asian countries are more adept in quantitative skills, Americans, however are more skillful in giving presentations and in expressing themselves creatively.

Though initially intimidated by these differences in attributes and orientation of the two sides of the globe, I realized that I have a definite advantage from my peers. The opportunity of immersing myself in the diverse cultures of the East and the West is very essential in the age of globalization. The luxury of learning and actually experiencing the strengths of both cultures is now within my grasp.

By persevering in exposing myself in them, I now have first hand access to the advantages and benefits that the two cultures provide. Instead of master only one aspect of business, which happens to be the strength of one of the two cultures, I have the opportunity to learn both. Through this I can gain better insight on the problems that the group would encounter in the future. I will be able to bridge cultural gaps between my fellow group members and mine. I can share to them what I have learned after experiencing my past interactions with persons of both nationalities.

I can also impart to my classmates and even to the faculty the discipline, loyalty, and obedience that is evident in Chinese culture. This will compliment the independence and creativity that Americans and other Westerners are known for. Aside from merely learning academic and theoretical knowledge found in the syllabus and to be taught by professors, I can supply actual accounts of activities and business cases that I personally had when I was still in Hong Kong and China. This will make classroom and group discussion more interactive and realistic.

Lastly, being a person coming from one of the most active country in the world in terms of economic growth, I can somehow provide my classmates an overview of the business activities and economic expansion of China and Hong Kong. I can convey the intricacies of the uniqueness of the Chinese culture. China is currently a major player in international business, and its mysterious aura is still strange in the West. By being a member of the class and the group, I can gradually open the eyes of the West to the rich and wonderful opportunities yet to be tapped in the East.

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Complete 7 pages APA formatted article: Autism and Personality. Clinicians and researchers have achieved consensus on the validity of autism as a diagnostic category and many features central to its d

Complete 7 pages APA formatted article: Autism and Personality. Clinicians and researchers have achieved consensus on the validity of autism as a diagnostic category and many features central to its definition. It is somewhat surprising and very encouraging to note that, as greater consensus has been achieved on the definition of strictly defined autism, an interesting and helpful discussion on issues of broader phenotype or potential variants of autism has begun.

Today, there is a broad agreement that autism is a developmental disorder, and autism and associated disorders in the spectrum represent the behavioural manifestations of underlying dysfunction in the functioning of the central nervous system (Minshew, N.J. and Williams, D.L., 2007). Within this, it can also be included that sustained educational and behavioural interventions are useful and constitute the core treatment of such condition (Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., Volkmar, F., and Cohen, D., 2002). In 1943, Kanner’s seminal clinical description of 11 children with “autistic disturbances of affective contact” has endured till date. His description of autism was grounded in data and theory of child development. Children those are normal exhibit marked interest in social interaction from early in life (Kanner, L., 1946). Kanner suggested that early infantile autism is an inborn, constitutional disorder in which children are born lacking the typical motivation for social interaction and effective comments. He used the model of inborn errors of metabolism to explain that individuals with autism are born without the biological preconditions for psychologically metabolizing the social world. The term autism was borrowed from Bleuler who first used autism to describe idiosyncratic, self-centred thinking (Bleuler, M., 1979). Kanner used this term to suggest that autistic children live in their own world. It represents a failure of development and fantasy is impoverished if present at all (Kanner, L., 1951).

In addition to the remarkable social failure, one of the other features that may be present in such individuals is a profound disturbance of communication to the extent that some of them may be mute (Nacewicz, B.M. et al., 2006). The language disturbance in others may be marked by echolalia and literalness as well as a fascinating difficulty with acquiring the use of the first person, personal pronoun, “I.” These children, therefore, refer to themselves in the third person, “he” or by the first name. Another intriguing feature is the children’s unusual responses to the intimate environment. This can be exemplified by unresponsiveness to parents, yet over-sensitiveness to the small changes in daily routine or simply environmental sounds. The three prime criteria enumerated by Kanner still hold good, and they are to date used to define autism. These are unusual social isolation, resistance to change, and dysfunction in communication (Landa, R.J., Holman, K.C., and Garrett-Mayer, E., 2007).

It has now been recognised that parental behaviour as such plays no role in the pathogenesis of autism. It is now known that children with autism are found in families of all social classes, and more recent data and rigorous research have failed to demonstrate an association with social classes (Stone, W.L., McMahon,&nbsp.C.R., Yoder, P.J., and Walden, T.A., (2007).

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Write 3 pages thesis on the topic cognitive development theory. Cognitive development is related to socialization. A child’s ability to judge social relations and gain sense of morality are largely di

Write 3 pages thesis on the topic cognitive development theory. Cognitive development is related to socialization. A child’s ability to judge social relations and gain sense of morality are largely dictated by his intellectual readiness and interaction with his environment (Levitt, n. d.)Cognitive development theory focuses on the following concerns: the specificity or generalizability of domains in cognitive ability changes. the occurrence and rate of change or the existence of qualitative different stages. the processes occurring in physical or psychological aspect of an individual. and the factors affecting development.Cognitive development theory makes sense of one’s environment and physiological conditions at which an individual interacts and functions to provide a system by which the process of learning and teaching might understood and controlled for maximum and optimum cognitive development.On the nature and development of intelligence, cognitive theorists particularly Jean Piaget and Lev S. Vygotsky both consider “the role of environmental factors in shaping the intelligence of children, especially on a child’s ability to learn by having certain behaviors rewarded and others discouraged” (Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence). Piaget believed that development proceeds from the individual to the social world.Piaget believes that child’s knowledge is composed of schemas, or knowledge units, which serve as basis for organizing past and new experiences. These schemas are continuously defined and redefined through “assimilation” and “accommodation”. According to Piaget, learning and understanding concepts can only happen when new things are incorporated into old and previously learned concepts. Otherwise, the schema will change to accommodate new knowledge. According to Piaget, cognitive development is a result of learning. Development occurs due to continuous incorporation of things from previous personal experiences. Learning is individually oriented. Development precedes learning. Piaget believed that intelligence arises progressively in the baby’s repetitive activities. Vygotsky, in contrast believed that instruction is necessary to attain development. Vygotsky believed that development begins at the social level and moves towards individual internalization. Social and cultural factors are important in the development of intelligence. Through “scaffolding”, an adult guided activity, a child learns new things gradually until he reaches new level of understanding. Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that learning precedes development. Vygotsky might have been aware of instances when a child has understood a concept before they can demonstrate their understanding of it. This happens when a child’s motor skills are not yet advanced enough or their language skills are not sophisticated enough to indicate their knowledge and mental processes, hence adult guided instruction is recommended to attain development (http://social.jrank.org/pages/145/Cognitive-Development.html). Both theorists however agree that development may be triggered by cognitive conflict. Any change in learning skills and knowledge can only happen if the learner has realized the difference and inconsistency with his existing understanding. Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children’s egocentric speech was an important part of their cognitive development. They differed in their views of the purpose of egocentric speech. Piaget considered egocentric speech suggests that the child is self-centered and unable to consider the point-of-view of others.

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Hi, need to submit a 1500 words paper on the topic Human Recourse Management. For a message to have its desired effect, both reception and yielding are necessary. (Collins, David 1998) Yet making sens

Hi, need to submit a 1500 words paper on the topic Human Recourse Management. For a message to have its desired effect, both reception and yielding are necessary. (Collins, David 1998) Yet making sense of the environment often entails numerous cycles of attending to information, interpreting information, acting on it, and receiving feedback to clarify one’s sense of the situation, particularly when events are highly ambiguous or subject to change.

Attribution theory has been useful in helping explain message-based persuasion and in helping identify key features that will allow for messages to be received and interpreted uniformly among employees. In the Human Recourse Management context, employees are required to infer cause-effect attributions from these communications to determine what behaviors are important, expected, and rewarded. Causal inference can be understood not solely as the inner workings of the mind but also as a process by which people gather and elicit causal explanations from others and communicate their explanations to others.

In order to function effectively in a social context and make accurate attributions about a situation, an employee must have adequate and unambiguous information. Although attribution frameworks have been used to explain whether an individual attributes the cause of another person’s behavior to internal or external factors, Redman, T and Wilkinson, A. (2001) attribution theory details the process for making attributions not only to other people but to situational factors as well. An individual can make confident attributions about cause-effect relationships in situations depending on the degree of distinctiveness (the event-effect is highly observable), consistency (the event-effect presents itself the same across modalities and time), and consensus (there is agreement among individuals’ views of the event-effect relationship). (Redman, T and Wilkinson, A. 2001)

We propose that when the Human Recourse Management is perceived as high in distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus, it will create a strong situation. Using literature on message-based persuasion and social influence, we elucidate nine meta-features of Human Recourse Management that build distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus, thereby creating a strong influence situation in which employees share constructions of the situation. As such, the features help foster the emergence of a strong organizational climate, as opposed to idiosyncratic psychological climate perceptions. The strength of the Human Recourse Management can be conceptualized in terms of its effectiveness in conveying the types of information needed to create a strong situation.

Distinctiveness of the situation generally refers to features that allow it to stand out in the environment, thereby capturing attention and arousing interest. We elucidate four characteristics of Human Recourse Management that can foster distinctiveness: visibility, understandability, legitimacy of authority, and relevance. (Blyton, P. and P. Turnbull 1994)

Visibility of the Human Recourse Management practices refers to the degree to which these practices are salient and readily observable.

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Write 3 pages thesis on the topic cross cultural management: the british character.

Write 3 pages thesis on the topic cross cultural management: the british character. Just a hundred years back, Britain was a country on which the sun never set. The English language, British customs, traditions, and food habits have now become an integral part of life in all her former colonies-all these being integrated into and modified by local customs. The British character and customs at home, have also been, in their turn, influenced by this close interaction with other cultures.

Officially, Britain is a Protestant state, i.e the British monarch is Protestant. The origin of this dates to the 16th century when King Henry VIII divorced his queen, Catherine of Aragon. As the Pope in Rome did not recognize divorce, Henry declared the English Church free from the control of the Pope. Thus the Reformation of the Church in England was mainly based on the whim of a monarch. Henry then married Anne Boleyn (the second of a succession of six wives that he eventually managed to have!) Queen Elizabeth II, the present monarch is a direct descendant of Henry and Anne. This fact makes it a political necessity for the monarchy in England to officially be Protestant, as otherwise (if it reverted to being Catholic) the current monarch would become the descendant of an illegitimate child (the illustrious Queen Elizabeth I) of Henry’s! While the ‘official’ religion in Britain is Protestant-Christian, the country is a multi-cultural one. “About 8% of the population of Britain (4.6 million) today are people from other cultures and ethnicities”(Biddle). This includes religions other than Christianity and peoples other than Whites. A living example of the integration of other cultures into British life is the Notting Hill Carnival, which is the Caribbean in origin. (Biddle)

Coming to some common superstitious beliefs of the British: black cats are considered lucky, and greeting cards often have pictures of them. likewise, a four-leaf clover is considered a lucky find. A horseshoe over the door attracts favorable luck. But it has to be kept facing upwards, to prevent the luck from being drained out from below.&nbsp. &nbsp.

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