UMUC Biology 102/103 Lab 7: Ecological Interactions

 On your own and without assistance, complete this Lab 7Answer Sheet electronically and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed intheCourse Schedule (underSyllabus).

·         To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located under Course Content. Read the introduction and the directions for each exercise/experiment carefully before completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions.

·         Save your Lab 7Answer Sheet in the following format:  LastName_Lab7 (e.g., Smith_Lab7).

·         You should submit your document as a Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) file for best compatibility.

 

Pre-Lab Questions

 

1.     Would you expect endangered species to be more frequently generalists or specialists? Explain your answer.

 

2.     How does temperature affect water availability in an ecosystem?

 

3.      Choose a species and describe some adaptations that species developed that allow them to survive in their native habitat.

 

Experiment 1: Effects of pH on Radish Seed Germination

Natural soil pH depends on the parent rock material from which it was formed and processes like climate. Soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the soil. Acidic soils are considered to have a 5.0 or lower pH value whereas 10.0 or above is considered a strong basic or alkaline soil. The pH of soil affects the solubility of nutrients in soil water and thus it affects the amount of nutrients available for plant uptake. Different nutrients are available under differing pH conditions.

In this experiment we will look at the effect of pH on the germination and growth rate of radish seeds in order to determine the range of pH tolerance for the seed. Acidic or basic water will be used in order to stimulate acidity or alkalinity in soil.

Materials

2 mL 4.5% Acetic Acid (Vinegar), C2H4O2

Permanent Marker

(3) 5 cm Petri Dishes

3 pH Test Strips

Radish Seed Packet

Ruler

2 mL 15% Saturated Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking

 

Soda) Solution, NaHCO3

*Paper Towel Sheets (cut to fit into the petri dish)

*Scissors

*Sunny Location

*Water

*You Must Provide

   
 

 

Procedure

1.     Use the permanent marker to label the top of each of the three petri dishes as Acetic Acid, Sodium Bicarbonate, or Water.

2.     Carefully cut three small circles from the paper towel sheets. The circles should comfortably fit within the bottom of the petri dish.

3.     Place the circles in the dishes, and wet them with approximately 2 mL of each respective solution (acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate, or water).

4.     Gently press the reaction pad of three, pH test strips onto the wet paper towels. Record your data in the first row of Table 1.

5.     Arrange 10 radish seeds on each paper towel in each petri dish. Make sure the seeds have space and are not touching. Then, place the top of the petri dish on the bottom.

6.     Place the petri dishes in a sunny or well-lit, warm place. Be sure to keep the paper towels moist for the length of the experiment with the appropriate solution if any of the towels dry out.

7.     Observe the seeds daily for seven days, and record the number of seeds that germinate in Table 1. Note when the seeds crack and roots or shoots emerge). On the seventh day, record the lengths of radish seed sprouts (mm or cm).

Table 1: pH and Radish Seed Germination
Day and Initial pH Acetic Acid Sodium Bicarbonate Water
Initial pH      
Day 1      
Day 2      
Day 3      
Day 4      
Day 5      
Day 6      
Day 7      

 

Post-Lab Questions

 

1.     Compare and construct a line graph based on the data from Table 1 in the space below. Place the day on the x axis, and the number of seeds germinated on the y axis. Be sure to include a title, label the x and y axes, and provide a legend describing which line corresponds to each plate (e.g., blue = acetic acid, green = sodium bicarbonate, etc…).

 

 

 

2.     Was there any noticeable effect on the germination rate of the radish seeds as a result of the pH? Compare and contrast the growth rate for the control with the alkaline and acidic solutions.

 

 

3.     According to your results would you say that the radish has a broad pH tolerance? Why or why not? Use your data to support your answer.

 

 

 

 

4.     Knowing that acid rain has a pH of 2 – 3 would you conclude that crop species with a narrow soil pH range are in trouble? Explain why, or why not, using scientific reasoning. Is acid rain a problem for plant species and crops?

 

 

 

 

Research and briefly describe a real world example about how acid rain affects plants. Be sure to demonstrate how pH contributes to the outcome, and proposed solutions (if any). Descriptions should be approximately 2 – 3 paragraphs. Include at least three citations (use APA formatting).

 

Looking for a Similar Assignment? Hire our Top Uk Tutors while you enjoy your free time! All papers are written from scratch and are 100% Original. Try us today! Active Discount Code FREE15

BIOL 103 Outline Final Applied Lab Project BIOL 103 Final Applied Lab Project

BIOL 103 Outline Final Applied Lab Project

Outline Final Applied Lab Project

Instructions

Outline submit in assignment folder by week 5 deadline.

Include the following in your outline:

•           Name of enzyme you will use

•           Name of organism (if applicable)

•           The substrate

•           Method for measuring enzyme activity

•           Treatment: acidic fluid(s), pH, length of exposure, how you will treat your samples

•           The control(s) in the experiment

•           Sample size

•           Hypothesis

•           How you will present your data (table and/or type of graph)

•           Anything else you would like to get feedback on before you start your experiment

BIOL 103 Final Applied Lab Project

Final Applied Lab Project

Instructions

Final Applied Lab Project (1 credit Lab Component)

Addresses course outcomes 1-4:

•           recognize and explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems

•           make observations and discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific explanations

•           weigh evidence and make decisions based on strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge and

•           the scientific method

•           use knowledge of biological principles, the scientific method, and appropriate technologies to ask

•           relevant questions, develop hypotheses, design and conduct experiments, interpret results, and draw

•           conclusions

This is the culminating lab assessment in BIOL 103. It is designed to assess your ability to apply the

principles of the scientific method.

The Effect of low pH on Enzyme Activity

Design an experiment in which you will test the effect of an acidic fluid on enzymatic activity.

Recall: enzymes are proteins! To complete this project, it may be useful for you to first review the

Scientific Method Tutorial, the OLI module about pH and enzymes, Lab 1 (Introduction to Science)

and Lab 4 (Enzymes).  As you review Lab 4, you will be reminded that there are several factors that

impact enzymatic activity: pH, temperature, and amount of reagent. It is OK to use the same

enzyme/substrate/method as you did in lab 4 (but modify the treatment), or you can search on-line

to find a different enzyme/substrate/method for measuring enzyme activity for your project

(include all references).

As you design your experiment for this project, please remember that you are trying to examine

how an acidic fluid will modify the outcome of an enzymatic reaction.  To successfully complete

this project, you will need to identify the question(s) being asked in your experiment and the

hypothesis that you are testing.  In your experimental design, you must clearly explain what you are

doing. That means that you will need to identify the enzyme, the substrate, the acidic fluid used as

treatment, the control treatment and the method of measuring enzyme activity, as well as explain

your experimental protocol.  You must also thoroughly explain how the acidic fluid impacted enzyme

activity based on the results from your own experiment as well as knowledge of enzymes and pH from

the OLI modules, lab manual and potentially additional information sources.

Hint: Keep in mind that the acid will change the environmental conditions of the experiment

(for example, a low pH value could change the shape of the active site on the enzyme protein),

without directly participating in the reaction.

Lab Materials

You may need all or some of the following, depending on your experimental design:

Materials from your lab kit:

•           pH paper

•           hydrogen peroxide solution (you can purchase this at a pharmacy if you have used up

•           the bottle that came with the lab kit)

•           plastic beakers or cups

•           vinegar

•           yeast (can be purchased at grocery store if more is needed)

•           balloons

•           plastic bottle

•           marker for labeling of beakers

You may choose to use additional materials (different acidic fluids and/or different organisms

and/or different substrate if you chose an enzyme other than catalase).

Outline (10 points) submit in assignment folder in week 7.

Include the following in your outline:

•           Name of enzyme you will use

•           Name of organism (if applicable)

•           The substrate

•           Method for measuring enzyme activity

•           Treatment: acidic fluid(s), pH, length of exposure, how you will treat your samples

•           The control(s) in the experiment

•           Sample size

•           Hypothesis

•           How you will present your data (table and/or type of graph)

•           Anything else you would like to get feedback on before you start your experiment

 

Write a paper that includes the following:

1. Title page: descriptive title, your name, course name, semester

2. Introduction: general background information about enzymes and specific information about your

chosen enzyme, the question(s) that you are asking and a clear hypothesis for your experiment (15 points).

3. Design an experiment. Provide a detailed description of the materials and methods used to conduct

the experiment. Identify control and experimental samples, as well as independent and dependent

variables. Also include the methods used for data collection and analysis (20 points).

4. Conduct the experiment and record your results. What did you observe? Present your data in table

and/or graph format. Remember to label everything and include the unit of measure with all numbers

(20 points)

5. Use your knowledge of enzymes and pH to interpret and discuss your results. It may be necessary

for you to refer to the OLI course modules, lab manual and/or use additional information resources.

What effect does the acidic treatment have on enzyme activity? Did you get the expected results?

Explain. (15 points)

6. State a specific and accurate conclusion. Is your hypothesis supported by the results?

Looking back, how could you have improved your experiment? (10 points)

7. Include a list of references to all information sources used in APA format (5 points).

 

 

Looking for a Similar Assignment? Hire our Top Uk Tutors while you enjoy your free time! All papers are written from scratch and are 100% Original. Try us today! Active Discount Code FREE15

1. Which Describes The Outcome Of Both Vertical And Lateral Gene Transfer? Leads To Rapid Evolution Of A Population Increases Variability In…

1. Which describes the outcome of both vertical and lateral gene transfer? leads to rapid evolution of a population increases variability in a population results in large changes to the genetic code occurs between nonrelated organisms are types of mutation 2. Which of the following occurs in vertical gene transfer, but does not occur in horizontal gene transfer? a type of asexual reproduction rapid evolutionary changes the use of a sex pilus interaction between parent and offspring plasmid transfers 3. Which of the following best describes the role of vertical gene transfer in evolution? The types of genes passed on in vertical gene transfer are determined by artificial selection. Vertical gene transfer is not affected by fitness. Vertical gene transfer involves sexual reproduction that increases variation. Mechanisms of evolution do not act on processes of vertical gene transfer. Organisms that utilize vertical gene transfer have an increased chance of mutation. 4. Which of the following is not part of the process of bacterial conjugation? plasmids F+ cells F– cells sex pilus bacteriophage 5. Based on the role of gene transfer in populations, which process will not increase variability in a population? sexual reproduction conversion conjugation transformation transduction
 

Looking for a Similar Assignment? Hire our Top Uk Tutors while you enjoy your free time! All papers are written from scratch and are 100% Original. Try us today! Active Discount Code FREE15

I Need Picture For Work And Put My Name Onit

Materials

 

*30 cm x 30 cm Aluminum Foil (Cell Wall)
*4 Gelatin Packets, unflavored
*2 Resealable Bags (Cell Membrane)
*Bowl
*Household items to represent the cell structures
*Warm Water
 You Must Provide items noted by an *asterisk

 

Procedure

 

1. Place four packets of unflavored gelatin in a bowl. Add 4 cups of hot water to the bowl. Do not refrigerate

the mixture yet!

 

Note: You do not need to heat the water in a microwave. Simply run tap water until it feels warm to the touch.

 

2. Label each resealable bag as either “Plant Cell” or “Animal Cell”. These will serve as the cell membrane.

3. Construct a cell wall using the aluminum foil. This should be large enough to fit the resealable bag when filled with half of the gelatin and some of the cell structures.

 

Hint: It is helpful to make this square-shaped.

 

4. Using your knowledge of the cell structures (rought component of endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes, nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, chloroplasts) think of  household items which

can represent these structures. Find and collect these items for use in this experiment.

 

Hint: Colored paper may bleed when placed in gelatin.

 

5. Open the resealable bag labeled “Plant Cell” and pour half of the liquid gelatin into it.7. Add the items which represent plant cell structures (you must determine which items!) into the gelatin and tightly close the bag. If there is an “organelle” present in both plant and animal cells make sure to leave enough to be included in the animal cell.

6. Place the bag in the aluminum foil cell wall.

7. Open the resealable bag labeled “Animal Cell” and pour the remainder of the gelatin into it.

8. Add the items which represent animal cell structures (you must determine which items!) into the gelatin and tightly close the bag.

9. Place both “cells” into the refrigerator for 24 hours.

10. Return after 24 hours and observe the “cells” you have made. Notice the difference between the animal cell and the plant cell.

 

Looking for a Similar Assignment? Hire our Top Uk Tutors while you enjoy your free time! All papers are written from scratch and are 100% Original. Try us today! Active Discount Code FREE15

UMUC Biology 102/103 Lab 7: Ecological Interactions

Pre-Lab Questions

1.    Would you expect endangered species to be more frequently generalists or specialists? Explain your answer.

 

2.    How does temperature affect water availability in an ecosystem?

 

3.    Choose a species and describe some adaptations that species developed that allow them to survive in their native habitat.

Experiment 1: Effects of pH on Radish Seed Germination

Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment

Table 1: pH and Radish Seed Germination

Stage/Day Observations      
Initial pH      
1 (0400hrs)      
2 (0400hrs)      
3 (0400hrs)      
4 (0400hrs)      
5 (0400hrs)      
6 (0400hrs)      
7 (0400hrs)      

 

Post-Lab Questions

1.    Compare and construct a line graph based on the data from Table 1 in the space below. Place the day on the x axis, and the number of seeds germinated on the y axis. Be sure to include a title, label the x and y axes, and provide a legend describing which line corresponds to each plate (e.g., blue = acetic acid, green = sodium bicarbonate, etc…).

 

 

2.    Was there any noticeable effect on the germination rate of the radish seeds as a result of the pH? Compare and contrast the growth rate for the control with the alkaline and acidic solutions.

 

3.    According to your results would you say that the radish has a broad pH tolerance? Why or why not? Use your data to support your answer.

 

4.    Knowing that acid rain has a pH of 2 – 3 would you conclude that crop species with a narrow soil pH range are in trouble? Explain why, or why not, using scientific reasoning. Is acid rain a problem for plant species and crops?

 

 5.    Research and briefly describe a real world example about how acid rain affect plants. Be sure to demonstrate how pH contributes to the outcome, and proposed solutions (if any). Descriptions should be approximately 2 – 3 paragraphs. Include at least three citations (use APA formatting).

 

 

Looking for a Similar Assignment? Hire our Top Uk Tutors while you enjoy your free time! All papers are written from scratch and are 100% Original. Try us today! Active Discount Code FREE15

You’ve Already Recorded Three Probe Readings For Patient D’s Maxillary Right Central Incisor On

1. You’ve already recorded three probe readings for Patient D’s maxillary right central incisor on her chart. How many more readings should be made and recorded for that tooth?
A. 0 B. 2 C. 3 D. 1
2. A room where patients regain consciousness after sedation is called a/an _______ room. A. recovery
B. operatory
C. reception
D. consultation
3. Antibiotics are used in post-surgery procedures to control A. infection.
B. bleeding.
C. pain.
D. sutures.
4. The most common type of gingivitis is A. plaque-associated gingivitis.
B. aggressive periodontitis.
C. NUG periodontitis.
D. desquamative gingivitis.
5. Control of pain is most commonly achieved through A. hot packs.
B. oral medications.
C. pressure packs.
D. meditation.
6. Reamer sizes range from
A. 15 to 150. B. 12 to 25. C. 6 to 150. D. 10 to 25.
7. Postoperative bleeding control is usually accomplished through A. abstaining from food for 10 hours.
B. the use of medication.
C. the use of a pressure pack.
D. sedation.
8. Which of the following items is the most common cause of pulpitis? A. Periodontitis
B. Trauma
C. Caries
D. Cellulitis
9. Patient H’s teeth have a lot of subgingival calculus that should be removed. Dr. Jackson usually prefers to use the ultrasonic scaler for subgingival scaling, but the patient has a poorly shielded cardiac pacemaker. Which of the following instruments would be the most appropriate instrument to use on this particular patient?
A. File
B. Probe
C. Curette
D. Portepolisher
10. The material placed directly on an exposed pulp is A. glass ionomer.
B. zinc oxide eugenol.
C. formocresol.
D. calcium hydroxide.
11. What instrument is used to detect cavities, calculus, and tooth irregularities? A. File
B. Hoe
C. Explorer
D. Probe
12. Of the following, the most common problem patients experience after periodontal surgery is A. gingival graft.
B. lost periodontal dressing.
C. gingival overgrowth.
D. lost sutures.
13. The significant difference between the attached gingiva and the alveolar mucosa is that the alveolar mucosa is
A. tooth-supporting tissue. B. lighter in color.
C. firmer.
D. not keratinized.
14. During a biopsy, what should a dental assistant not do? A. Be at chairside because it will distract the dentist
B. Assist the dentist as instructed
C. Suction the biopsy site when the tissue is being cut
D. Suction away from the biopsy site
15. If the furcation is visible and the Nabers furcation probe can pass through the furcation to the opposite side, the periodontitis has progressed to a _______ furcation involvement.
A. Class III B. Class II C. Class I D. Class IV
16. Angle’s Class II distoclusion refers to the A. lower molar back relative to the upper first molar. B. overjet.
C. mesio-buccal cusp of the second molar.
D. underbite.
17. The removal and recontouring of the alveolar ridge after an extraction is called a/an A. alveolectomy.
B. simple extraction.
C. biopsy.
D. frenectomy.
18. A patient may be referred to an orthodontist if his or her teeth exhibit A. mobility.
B. sensitivity to cold foods and drinks.
C. dental caries.
D. crowding, overbites, and/or crossbites.
19. What are the three classifications of orthodontic treatment? A. Functional, interceptive, and preventive
B. Interceptive, preventive, and corrective
C. Preventive, corrective, and functional
13. The significant difference between the attached gingiva and the alveolar mucosa is that the alveolar mucosa is
A. tooth-supporting tissue. B. lighter in color.
C. firmer.
D. not keratinized.
14. During a biopsy, what should a dental assistant not do? A. Be at chairside because it will distract the dentist
B. Assist the dentist as instructed
C. Suction the biopsy site when the tissue is being cut
D. Suction away from the biopsy site
15. If the furcation is visible and the Nabers furcation probe can pass through the furcation to the opposite side, the periodontitis has progressed to a _______ furcation involvement.
A. Class III B. Class II C. Class I D. Class IV
16. Angle’s Class II distoclusion refers to the A. lower molar back relative to the upper first molar. B. overjet.
C. mesio-buccal cusp of the second molar.
D. underbite.
17. The removal and recontouring of the alveolar ridge after an extraction is called a/an A. alveolectomy.
B. simple extraction.
C. biopsy.
D. frenectomy.
18. A patient may be referred to an orthodontist if his or her teeth exhibit A. mobility.
B. sensitivity to cold foods and drinks.
C. dental caries.
D. crowding, overbites, and/or crossbites.
19. What are the three classifications of orthodontic treatment? A. Functional, interceptive, and preventive
B. Interceptive, preventive, and corrective
C. Preventive, corrective, and functional
D. Corrective, functional, and interceptive
20. The two basic types of sutures are the _______ and _______ sutures.
A. hard; soft
B. resorbable; meltible
C. resorbable; nonresorbable
D. resorbable; dissolvable

29 May 2016, 6:08 PM

Customer

21. Scissors for oral surgery are made with two basic designs: A. tissue and suture.
B. retractor and suture.
C. retractor and tissue.
D. bandage and suture.
22. The metal substructure of a partial denture is called the A. framework.
B. dentition.
C. clasp.
D. abutment.
23. A dental lab can’t complete a requested procedure without which of the following items? A. The dentist’s name, signature, and dental license number
B. The start date of the procedure
C. The dentist’s age
D. The patient’s occupation
24. How do the gums respond when they become dry because of constant mouth breathing? A. By causing the development of an open bite
B. By causing the production of additional saliva
C. By developing a red and inflamed appearance
D. By narrowing and becoming pale
25. The amount of time that self-curing orthodontic adhesive resin is allowed to set is A. 1–2 minute(s).
B. 3–4 minutes.
C. 5–15 minutes.
D. 20–30 minutes.
26. The removal of an area of soft tissue which exhibits suspicious characteristics is known as a/an A. multiple extraction
B. simple extraction
C. intraoral exam
D. biopsy
27. The most common donor site for harvesting a free gingival graft is the A. retromolar area.
B. roof of the mouth.
C. alveolar mucosa.
D. marginal gingiva.
28. Calculating the working length of an endodontic instrument involves several steps. Which of the following steps should be last?
A. Measure the tooth on a good preoperative radiograph.
B. Measure the tooth from the end of the instrument to the end of the root, and then subtract 0.5 mm as a safety factor. C. Insert the instrument to the stop and take another radiograph.
D. Subtract 3.0 mm from the initial tooth measurement and position a stop at this length on the first instrument to be used.
29. Dr. Richard Lee tests Patient K’s maxillary right third molar with a vitalometer. From the results, he diagnoses a necrotic pulp. How did the tooth most likely respond to electrical stimuli?
A. No response
B. Moderate response C. Very low response D. High response
30. What are three of the most common procedures used to prevent decay? A. Sealant, oral-hygiene instructions, and fluoride treatment
B. Fluoride treatment, stainless steel crown, and sealant
C. Oral-hygiene instructions, stainless steel crown, and fluoride treatment
D. Stainless steel crown, sealant, and oral-hygiene instructions
31. A large space between the front teeth is called a midline A. diastema.
B. void.
C. gap.
D. diameter.
32. Dr. Fernandez is about to perform a lateral condensation filling technique. As the dental assistant, which one of the following instruments must you hand her?
A. Condenser B. Spreader C. Plugger
D. Broach
33. After using a suture needle, you should dispose of it by placing it in a
A. sharps container.
B. garbage can. C. plastic bag. D. paper bag.
34. You’re assisting Dr. Sarah Jones during periodontal surgery. She has already made an incision. Which of the following instruments must you now hand her to fold back the flap?
A. Periodontal forceps B. Surgical hoe
C. Periosteal elevator D. Kirkland knife
35. A powerful evacuator used to remove fluids from the oral cavity during surgical procedures is the A. retractor.
B. surgical bur.
C. surgical aspirating unit.
D. rongeur.
36. Luxated teeth refers to which of the following types of teeth? A. Very shiny teeth
B. Teeth that are no longer in their original position
C. Teeth that are knocked out and on the ground
D. Mottled, speckled teeth
37. What are used to lift and separate tissues during an oral surgery procedure? A. Rests
B. Rongeurs
C. Clasps
D. Elevators
38. A tooth knocked out of the mouth is said to be A. broken.
B. luxated.
C. avulsed.
D. fractured.
39. A complete denture is made to sit on the A. lips.
B. damaged cusps.
C. soft tissues and underlying bony structures.
D. remaining teeth.
40. Separators are placed _______ to _______ days prior to fitting and cementation of bands.
A. 1; 2
B. 3; 7 C. 1; 5 D. 5; 10
41. What should you do to keep a pediatric patient calm? A. Look before you leap
B. Accentuate the positive
C. Inform before you perform
D. Wear a white lab coat
42. Tenderness of a tooth can best be determined by A. radiographs.
B. transillumination.
C. fiber optics.
D. percussion.
43. The instrument used for extractions in oral surgery procedures to remove the tooth from the alevolar bone is known as the _______ instrument.
A. clasp
B. elevator
C. aspirating unit D. forceps
44. Which of the following items would not be included on a dental laboratory prescription? A. The type of pontic
B. Infection control instructions
C. The type of prosthesis
D. The dentist’s name
45. Local anesthesia is achieved through A. premedication prior to a procedure.
B. intravenous therapy.
C. mental relaxation.
D. the injection of an anesthetic into the area in which the procedure is performed

 

 

Looking for a Similar Assignment? Hire our Top Uk Tutors while you enjoy your free time! All papers are written from scratch and are 100% Original. Try us today! Active Discount Code FREE15

Answer This Study Case?

A.W., a 52-year-old woman disabled from severe emphysema, was walking at a mall when she suddenly grabbed her right side and gasped, “Oh, something just popped.” A.W. whispered to her walking companion, “I can’t get any air.” Her companion yelled for someone to call 911 and helped her to the nearest bench. By the time the rescue unit arrived, A.W. was stuporous and in severe respiratory distress. She was intubated, an IV of lactated Ringer’s (LR) to KVO (keep vein open) was started, and she was transported to the nearest emergency department (ED).

On arrival A.W. is stuporous, tachycardic, and cyanotic. The paramedics inform the physician that it was difficult to ventilate A.W. arterial blood gases (ABGs) are obtained. A.W. Her ABGs on 100% oxygen are pH 7.25, Paco2 92 mm Hg, Pao2 32 mm Hg, HCO3 27 mmol/L, base excess (BE) +5 mmol/L, Sao2 53%.

1. On arrival to the ER what assessments would be a priority for the nurse or doctor to perform? Be specific in your answers.

2. What exams and lab tests would you suggest to be done and why.

3. What do you think the diagnosis would be for this patient?

4. Describe the findings of the arterial blood gas results.

 

Looking for a Similar Assignment? Hire our Top Uk Tutors while you enjoy your free time! All papers are written from scratch and are 100% Original. Try us today! Active Discount Code FREE15

Ashworth College Assignment 8 Basic Biology

ASSIGNMENT 08

 

SC160 Basic Biology

 

Directions:  Be sure to save an electronic copy of your answer before submitting it to Ashworth College for grading. Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English, spelling and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) double-spaced pages; refer to the “Assignment Format” page located on the Course Home page for specific format requirements.

 

 

 

Discuss the applications of each of following in biology today and include three examples of each with a brief description.

 

 

 

  1. DNA in forensic science
  2. Population evolution and microbial life
  3. Biological diversity evolution
  4. Plant and animal evolution
  5. Population growth
  6. Biomes and ecosystems

 

 

 

Looking for a Similar Assignment? Hire our Top Uk Tutors while you enjoy your free time! All papers are written from scratch and are 100% Original. Try us today! Active Discount Code FREE15

Napsrx Practice Quiz/ Napsrx Practice Quiz

1.      How are drugs sorted into therapeutic group and classes?

A.      First by the conditions that they are used to treat, and then by their mechanisms of action

B.      First by their mechanisms of action, and then by their therapeutic effects

C.      First by their side effects, and then by their therapeutic effects

D.     First by their toxicity, and then by their effectiveness

2.      What section of a drug’s package insert describes situations in which the drug should not be used because the risks outweigh the therapeutic benefits?

A.      Adverse reactions

B.      Contraindications

C.      Overdosage

D.     Warming/precautions

3.      Which of the following is NOT one of the stages in the classic approach to band development strategy covered in your manual?

A.      Band personality

B.      Band positioning

C.      Band quality

D.     Band values

4.      What is the name of the condition that occurs after a specific dose of a drug is given at such regular intervals that absorption and elimination (and therefore drug plasma concentration) have become fairly constant?

A.      homeostasis

B.      steady state

C.      titration

D.     tolerance

5.      Which entity/entities invest/s the most money in pharmaceutical R&D?

A.      Canadian pharmaceutical companies

B.      The NIH

C.      The U.S Government

D.     U.S pharmaceutical companies

6.      Over the last few decades, what has happened to legal limitations sales’ reps discussions about off label uses?

A.      Limitations have decreased.

B.      Limitations have increased significantly.

C.      Limitations have increased slightly.

D.     Limitations have remained about the same.

7. Why are novice sales representatives often placed in charge of negotiating MCO formularies?

A. to become more familiar with the healthcare industry

B. to be more familiar with their territories

C. P&T committees are more receptive to new experienced reps.

D. They are not. This job is usually reserved for more experienced reps.

8.      Which of the following is an example of a central value?

A.      I buy Advil to show that I’m modern consumer.

B.      I like Advil because we were both born in the 80s.

C.      I prefer Advil because I like the flavor.

D.     I prefer Advil because it’s easier to swallow.

9.      Which of the following specialties likely has the MOST emergency calls?

A.      Cardiology

B.      Psychiatry

C.      Urology

D.     All specialists have the same number of emergency calls

10.  What affects the rate of active transport?

A.      The availability of carriers, but not energy

B.      The availability of energy, but not carriers

C.      The availability of carriers and energy

D.     Neither the availability of carriers nor the availability of energy

11.  Over the last few decades, what has happened to the FDA approval time for new drugs?

A.      It has been lengthened to ensure safer drug products.

B.      It has been lengthened to limit DTC marketing.

C.      It has been shortened to improve drug quality.

D.     It has been shortened to reduce the cost of new drug development.

12.  Which of the following would NOT help improve compliance?

A.      Patients liking their providers

B.      Patients using only one pharmacist

C.      Pharmacists understanding how generics differ from brand name drugs

D.     Support groups

13.   As the price a patient pays for prescription increases, what happens to the likelihood that the patient will fill it?

A.      It decreases

B.      It increases

C.      It remains unaffected because the prescription is needed

D.     It remains unaffected because the prescription’s increased cost is offset by its perceived value

14.  Which of the following is NOT one of the body’s major organ systems?

A.      The cardiovascular system

B.      The cellular system

C.      The gastrointestinal system

D.     The musculoskeletal system

15.   How do most drugs exert their primary physiological effects?

A.      By activating synapses between different types of tissues

B.      By binding to cell receptors that are sensitive to their presence

C.      By inhibiting synapses between different types of tissues

D.     Through genetic mutation

16.   What should a sale representative do if all of the prime spaces in a drug cabinet are occupied?

A.      Ask staff for permission to move some of the other products in the cabinet

B.      Ask staff for permission to throw away expired product in the cabinet

C.      Ask the doctor if he still needs some of the other products in the cabinet

D.     Surreptitiously move your largest competitor’s products out of the way

17.  It is inappropriate for physicians’ prescribing behaviors to be educated by their personal tastes and idiosyncrasies

A.      True

B.      False

18.  The FDA defines API as the active———-ingredient in a drug, which produces the desired change in the body.

A.      Pharmaceutical

B.      Positive

C.      Potent

D.     Primary

19.  What term describes the usage of a medication for purposes other than the FDA-approved indications on the labeling?

A.      Contraindicative indication

B.      Off-indication usage

C.      Off label use

D.     Off usage

20.  What is typically NOT a characteristic of a pharmaceutical rep?

A.      Pharmaceutical sales reps are authentic and real.

B.      Pharmaceutical sales reps are creative.

C.      Pharmaceutical sale reps are focused.

D.     Pharmaceutical sale reps are not concerned about competitors.

21.  Which of the following refers to all active and inert pharmaceutical ingredients in a drug, including fillers and colors?

A.      Formulation

B.      Mycoplasma

C.      Peptide

D.     Saccharide

22.  Senior citizens consume over——–times as many pharmaceutical as people under 65.

A.      Three

B.      Five

C.      Ten

D.     Fifteen

23.  What is passive diffusion?

A.      A type of pinocytosis

B.      Membrane transport via vesicles

C.      The use of energy to help a substance pass from a low concentration gradient to a high one

D.     When a substance freely moves through a membrane from a high concentration gradient to a low one

24.  What are all metabolites?

A.      Type of pinocytosis

B.      Membrane transport via vesicles

C.      The use of energy to help a substance pass a low concentration gradient to a high one

D.     When a substance freely moves through a membrane from a high concentration gradient to allow one

25.  When a drug is administered orally, where does first-pass metabolism occur?

A.      Intestine

B.      Liver

C.      Pancreas

D.     Stomach

26.  Which of the following is NOT part of the Seven Step Cascade of Emotion?

A.      Be a consultant, not a rep

B.      Identify what your product does

C.      Reflect

D.     Visualize the power 10

27.  If a sales representative’s product is placed on the second tier of a standard three-tier formulary, which of the following is most likely true?

A.      It has not been reviewed by the P&T committee.

B.      It is in a neutral position unless it is at parity with other drugs

C.      It probably has exclusive preferred status if it is not at parity with any other drugs.

D.     It will essentially sell itself if it is granted exclusive preferred status.

28.  According to your manual, what is a common complaint that physicians have about traditional sampling methods?

A.      That drug sample supply is too unpredictable

B.      That patients are less likely to take free samples because they think they are lower quality

C.      That patients do not like seeing drug representatives in their offices

D.     That they receive too many drug samples

29.  Which of the following would help you build trust with a physician?

A.      Asking if he or she is having any problems with the managed care coverage of your products

B.      Repeating a question you already asked

C.      Surprising the office staff with a new poster in the break room

D.     None of these would help you build trust with a physician

30.   As of November 2013, which of these countries has legalized DTC advertising of prescription drugs?

A.      Canada

B.      Japan

C.      Spain

D.     None of these

31.  Which phase of clinical trial is also known as the pivotal phase?

A.      Phase I

B.      Phase III

C.      Phase IV

D.     Phase IX

32.   During which phase of clinical trials is also known as the pivotal phase?

A.      Preclinical

B.      Phase I

C.      Phase II

D.     Phase III

33.  What is one of the biggest time wasters for a pharmaceutical sales rep?

A.      Winterers

B.      Pharmacists

C.      Receptionists

D.     Physicians

34.   What is the percentage fee that the dispenser pays the wholesaler for distribution?

A.      Margin fee

B.      Recharge

C.      Standard fee

D.     Upcharge

35.  Which of the following is an example of noncompliance?

A.      A patient forgetting to take a drug at a specified time of day

B.      A patient taking a drug, but only because it has been court-mandated

C.      A pharmacist dispensing a generic equivalent of a drug instead of the brand name

D.     A physician refusing to prescribe a drug because he or she does not trust the clinical studies on it

36.  What is one way in which pharmaceutical selling is different from selling in most other industries?

A.      In pharmaceutical sales, the decision-makers consumers, and payers are usually the same entity

B.      Pharmaceutical selling takes less time because doctors are so busy.

C.      Representatives do NOT sell to the user of the product.

D.     Representatives DO sell to the end user of the product

37.  Drugs can be used—– days beyond their expiration date.

A.      2-7 days, depending on the most current monograph.

B.      2-90 days, depending on the state laws

C.      7-90 days, depending on the type of drug and its therapeutic class.

D.     None of these

38.  What issue has MOST encouraged consumers’ desire to see more OTC medications?

A.      A weaker patients ‘right movement

B.      Lack of insurance coverage

C.      Less reliance on the internet

D.     Proliferation of herbal remedies

39.  Which phase of trials largely determines the clinical dose?

A.      Preclinical trials

B.      Phase II trials

C.      Phase III trials

D.     Phase IV trials

40.  What must be contained in the Description section of a pharmaceutical package insert?

A.      Adverse effects

B.      Mechanism of action

C.      Pharmacokinetics

D.     The proprietary name and the established name

41.   Customers purchase products from people they like, trust, and respect. This is called the———-

A.      Closing of the sale

B.      First time advantage

C.      Likeability factor

D.     Power of knowledge

42.   According to your manual, how has the U.S. healthcare marketplace changed in the last few decades?

A.      Fewer and fewer prescription drugs have been made available as OTCs.

B.      Managed care has been increasingly replaced by more patient- centered approaches.

C.      The aging Baby Boomer generation has begun demanding more personalized attention.

D.     There has been decreased emphasis on preventive health.

43.  How does pharmaceutical marketing help narrow the treatment gap?

A.      It encourages patients to take more active roles in their healthcare.

B.      It makes doctors more skeptical of the pharmaceutical industry.

C.      It makes patients more skeptical of their doctors’ opinions.

D.     All of these

44.  The FDA requirements for nutraceuticals and medicinal herbs are just as stringent as for pharmaceuticals.

A.      True

B.      False

45.   After a trade-name drug’s patent expires, how may generic versions of it be sold?

A.      Only under the branded generic name

B.      Only under the generic name

C.      Only under the original trade name

D.     Under the original trade name or a generic name

46.  What is required for a new pharmaceutical to be considered a viable therapy?

A.      It causes no serious adverse effects.

B.      It causes no side effects.

C.      It has an active placebo.

D.     It is more effective and/or causes fewer serious adverse effects than other drugs on the market.

47.   A generic version is likely to have some inactive ingredients that are different from those of the original drug.

A.      True

B.      False

 

48.  Where are most drugs metabolized?

A.      Interstitial spaces

B.      Liver

C.      Stomach

D.     The bloodstream

 

49.  What is essential to the ethical requirement that subjects be selected fairly?

A.      Selection criteria should be well-supported by documented evidence.

B.      Studies should make every attempt to conduct research on subjects who are underprivileged and in need of medical attention

C.      Subject should be selected based on scientific objectives.

D.     All of these

 

50.  Which of the following is NOT typically included in the indications and usage section of the package insert information?

A.      Diseases or conditions that the drug is approved to treat

B.      The drug’s active metabolites

C.      The drug’s recommended usual dosage

D.     The drug’s usual dosage range

 

Looking for a Similar Assignment? Hire our Top Uk Tutors while you enjoy your free time! All papers are written from scratch and are 100% Original. Try us today! Active Discount Code FREE15

Please Answer These 6 Multiple Choice Questions

 

1. Living organisms share a number of characteristics. These unifying characteristics separate them from non-living things. For each of the following statements, check the statements that correctly distinguish living things from non-living things?

1. All living organisms are made up of one or more cells.

2. Only living organisms are complex.

3. All living organisms reproduce by passing on specific genetic information to future generations.

4. Only living organisms are capable of movement.

5. Only living organisms (populations) are capable of evolving.

6. Only living organisms require an input of energy to drive cellular activities.

7. Only living organisms produce heat as a byproduct of chemical reactions.

8. All living organisms are dependent on a constant supply of oxygen for survival.

9. Only living organisms respond to external stimuli.

10. All living organisms grow by increasing cell size and/or cell number.

2. The formulation of a hypothesis is based on observations and refined by available information from past observations or research. Place the following statements in the appropriate sequence showing the progression from an observation to a testable hypothesis.

1. You notice that the bread you left on the counter has more mold on it than do the rolls that you put in the refrigerator.You notice that the bread you left on the counter has more mold on it than do the rolls that you put in the refrigerator.

2. Does temperature affect the growth of mold or is the difference in mold growth related to differences between the bread and the rolls?Does temperature affect the growth of mold or is the difference in mold growth related to differences between the bread and the rolls?

3. Bread placed in warmer temperatures should develop mold faster and more extensively than bread placed in colder temperatures.

4. Colder temperatures impede the growth of mold.

 

3. Drag the part of the scientific method on the left to the example on the right it best matches. Then, drag the sentences into the sequence they would most likely happen following a simplified scientific method.

observation

peer review

hypothesis

data collection

analysis

1. John runs some statistics on his distances to see if he can find any significance in his study. Part:  ____________

2. On a walk around a pond John sees that small frogs on the shore only allow him to get within 5 feet before jumping into the water. Part:  ____________

3. John uses mechanical “predators” to approach frogs at a pond shore, and he records the distance between predator and frog as the frogs jump. Part:

4. John writes up and sends out his experimental results for other scientists to critique. Part:  ____________

5. John thinks that frogs vary the proximity to which they allow predators to approach based on the size of the predator. Part:  ____________

4. The four major groups of organic compounds are:

1. carbohydrates, lipids, steroids, and monosaccharides.

2. carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and nucleic acids.

3. fats, waxes, carbohydrates, and amino acids.

4. lipids, fats, waxes, and steroids.

5. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

5. Complete the following paragraph to describe the semiconservative replication of DNA.

parental

completed

complementary

nucleotides

template

three

next

map

semiconservative

shorter

phosphates

two

1. DNA replication is achieved by a process called  ____________  replication.

2. After the DNA double helix unwinds, each old strand serves as a  ____________  for the formation of a new strand.

3. Complementary  ____________  will base pair with those of the old strand.

4. After all new nucleotides are added, the old and new strand will form a  ____________  strand of DNA.

5. After replication is complete there are  ____________  daughter DNA double helices.

6. Each daughter double helix has the same sequence of base pairs as the  ____________  double helix had before replication began.

6. Complete the following paragraph to describe the four main observations that make up Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

population

predation

differential reproductive success

biological evolution

competition

adaptations

heritable

modifications

1. Individual organisms within a(n)  ____________  exhibit variation. That variation is  ____________  and can be passed on from generation to generation.

2. These organisms undergo  ____________  for a limited number of available natural resources.

3. These organisms exhibit  ____________ , meaning some have traits that better enable them to survive long enough to reproduce.

4. Those that do survive to reproduce pass on their  ____________  traits to their offspring.

 

5. Over time, natural selection enables organisms to develop  ____________  to their environment.

 

Looking for a Similar Assignment? Hire our Top Uk Tutors while you enjoy your free time! All papers are written from scratch and are 100% Original. Try us today! Active Discount Code FREE15